leafhopper


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leafhopper,

common name for small, wedge-shaped leaping insects, cosmopolitan in distribution, belonging to the family Cicadellidae, which comprises some 5,500 species of insects. Some are brightly colored and others are green to brown; they generally measure less than 1-4 in. (6 mm) in length. Leafhoppers, and the family as a whole, attack a wide range of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs. However, the nymphs and adults frequently suck the sap of only one or a few kinds of plants. Besides stunting plant growth by causing loss of sap, some leafhoppers introduce a toxin into the plant as they feed; others introduce disease organisms.

The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, is a serious pest in the E United States. It causes a disease commonly known as hopperburn on potatoes and damages many other plants, including apples, beans, and clover. As a result of the potato leafhopper's attack, the leaf's conducting tissue is plugged; the plant leaves curl and begin to turn brown near the tip, and eventually the whole leaf appears blighted. As many as 5 to 6 million leafhoppers may be found per acre. Other leafhopper pests include the beet leafhopper, which causes the beet disease known as curly top in the W United States; the grape leafhopper; the rose leafhopper; and the apple leafhopper.

Many leafhoppers have a single generation per year, but there may be several. They overwinter either in the adult or egg stage, depending on the species. Eggs are laid singly or a few at a time in stems and leaves. The adults overwinter only in the south; those migrating north each year cause much damage, but are usually killed by the frost.

Leafhoppers are classified in the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Homoptera, family Cicadellidae.

leafhopper

[′lēf‚häp·ər]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for members of the homopteran family Cicadellidae.
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Evolution of insect pest: maize and leafhopper, a case of study.
Nagaoka had found himself in a vicious cycle: as leafhoppers kept adapting and building up resistance to each petroleum-derived, organophosphate insecticide used to control them, he would switch to a new formulation.
These producers have identified that, in fact, some leafhopper damage when producing oolong can be beneficial.
lugens frequently from 1800-2000 in a greenhouse condition and similarly Arai (1977) observed the copulation of leafhopper, Hishimonus sellatus (Uhler) from evening to night in field conditions.
This study was conducted to detect and characterize, for the first time, the agent associated with phytoplasma-like symptoms in alfalfa fields in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia and to determine whether the leafhopper vector Empoasca decipiens (Paoli), found in the field carries this disease agent as well.
Among its fans are researchers at Oklahoma State University, who are using it to study how plant pathogens are injected into watermelons by squash bugs and into corn by corn leafhoppers.
The problem is bacteria that inhabits oleander sap and is spread from plant to plant in the saliva of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, a species of leafhopper insect that also causes problems in California's almond orchards and vineyards.
Inheritance and QTL Mapping of Antibiosis to Green Leafhopper in Rice