leaven

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leaven

(lĕv`ən), agent used to raise bread or other flour foods. Physical leavens include water vapor, which is released as steam at high temperatures (as in popovers), and air, which is incorporated by beating. Chemical leaven (baking powder and baking soda) and biological leavens (yeasts and certain bacteria) raise the mixture by the formation of carbon dioxide gas, which is expanded by heat. Some of the earliest leavens were barm, a yeast of fermenting malt liquor, and sourdough, a portion saved from a mass of dough as a starter for the next batch.

leaven

[′lev·ən;]
(food engineering)
A substance (such as yeast) used to produce fermentation.
A substance such as yeast or baking powder used to produce a gas to lighten dough.

leaven

1. any substance that produces fermentation in dough or batter, such as yeast, and causes it to rise
2. a piece of such a substance kept to ferment a new batch of dough
References in periodicals archive ?
Quick breads refer to a category of breads that are leavened with carbon dioxide gas from chemical leaveners.
Besides chemical leaveners, air and steam are also important leavening agents.
Neutralization reactions occur in batters that contain chemical leaveners and they ultimately help baked goods to rise.
Baking powder is a mixture of different leaveners that include baking soda and one or more acids.
All three of these by-products can act as leaveners.
Air becomes an extremely important team player when using chemical leaveners.
double-acting baking powder A chemical leavener that requires both moisture and heat to produce carbon dioxide gas that is used to leaven baked goods.
single-acting baking powder A chemical leavener that requires moisture to produce carbon dioxide gas to leaven baked goods.
chemical leaveners Refer to baking powder, baking soda, and ammonium carbonate, which are chemicals that react with liquid ingredients upon mixing and the heat of the oven to produce carbon dioxide gas that leavens baked goods.
leaveners Ingredients that are added to batter and dough to help them rise.
quick breads Refers to a category of breads, scones, biscuits, muffins, and popovers that are quick to make and use chemical leaveners instead of yeast.