pits are situated posteroventrally and separated by a well-developed median septum.
Ptosis may be caused by trauma to the levator
muscle, insult to the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion or damage to the oculomotor nerve.
Rogalski et al reviewed 26 patients who received vaginal diazepam for bladder pain, sexual pain, and levator
Martin and Fish (35) report the DSN piercing the levator
scapulae as it travelled inferiorly in nine of their 35 dissected specimens suggesting a possible area of compression.
New advances in imaging techniques have the potential to provide objective confirmation of findings assessed by examination, such as levator
ani injuries, or structural findings not clear to the clinician, depending on pelvic anatomy, during a clinical examination.
The most important component of the physical exam in patients with the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain--and the most overlooked --is assessment of the levator
muscles for tightness and tenderness.
1,2 The basic etiology of ptosis is weakness of either of two elevators of the upper lid that include levator
palpebrae superioris and muller muscle.
Increase of urethral mobility in combination with lesions of the levator
ani muscle is the probable mechanism of impairment during vaginal delivery(40).
Instead of tarsorrhaphy or gold weight implants to protect the ocular surface in cases of facial paralysis, corneal damage may be prevented by using BoNT-A injection to the levator
palpebrae superioris muscle to induce eyelid ptosis.
The origin and insertion of the levator
claviculae vary greatly among species; however, in humans the muscle frequently arises from the transverse processes of the cervical spine and inserts onto the middle or lateral clavicle.
The internal obturator muscle was elevated and sutured medially and laterally by coccygeus and levator
ani muscles using mattress pattern 1-0 polypropylene sutures followed by subcutanelous sutures using polygalactin 910.
The pelvic floor consists of several muscles, primarily the levator
ani and coccygeus muscles.