The nerve fibers to levator
palpebrae muscle and the pupil loconstrictor fibers for the muscles of the iris are located in a superficial and dorsal position on the nerve relaying in the ciliary ganglion.
In the 1940s, it was discovered that the levator
ani and bulbocavernosus muscles also responded to androgens, but in a different way from the other tissues (Eisenberg and Gordan 1950; Eisenberg et al.
Working in an office setting in conjunction with a neurologist, a gynecologist injected a total dose of 100 U of botulinum type A toxin (reconstituted with 4 cc of preservative-free saline) trans-vaginally into between three and six injection sites in the women's levator
ani musclesat sites of palpable spasm.
1) During swallowing, the lumen of the eustachian tube opens, and the toms tubarius elevates as a result of the combined action of three muscles: the tensor veil palatini, the levator
veli palatini, and the superior constrictor.
Additionally, pain in the iliopsoas complex can sometimes be referred to the levator
Causes of persistent or chronic ptosis usually involve damage to the levator
muscle due to toxic effects of anaesthesia, prolonged oedema, trauma from direct injection into the muscle, or use of a lid speculum during surgery.
The DSN courses downward behind the brachial plexus deep to the levator
scapula muscle, which the DSN innervates, and terminates by piercing the deep surfaces of the major and minor rhomboids (1).
One woman in four suffers neuropathic injury to the levator
ani with her first delivery, according to a novel study that used pre- and postpartum concentric needle electromyographic examinations to study muscle function.
Mortimore et al wrote that upper airway obstruction at the retropalatal level is related to the imbalance between the activity of the levator
and tensor veli palatini muscles, which elevate and tense the soft palate, and the activity of the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus muscles, which depress the soft palate anteroinferiorly.
Early postoperative complications consisted of transient urinary retention in eight patients, levator
spasm in two, and postoperative bleeding that required surgical evaluation in one patient.
the buccal branch, which innervates the procerus, the zygomaticus major and minor, the levator
labii superioris, the levator
anguli oris, nasal muscles, the buccinator, and the orbicularis oris
The vaginal suspensory axis is a continuum of connective tissue that serves as the primary structure to hold the central pelvic organs above the levator
plate and behind the urogenital hiatus.