liquefaction


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liquefaction,

change of a substance from the solid or the gaseous state to the liquid state. Since the different states of matter correspond to different amounts of energyenergy,
in physics, the ability or capacity to do work or to produce change. Forms of energy include heat, light, sound, electricity, and chemical energy. Energy and work are measured in the same units—foot-pounds, joules, ergs, or some other, depending on the system of
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 of the molecules making up the substance, energy in the form of heatheat,
nonmechanical energy in transit, associated with differences in temperature between a system and its surroundings or between parts of the same system. Measures of Heat
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 must either be supplied to a substance or be removed from the substance in order to change its state. Thus, changing a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas requires the addition of heat, while changing a gas to a liquid or a liquid to a solid requires the removal of heat. In the liquefaction of gases, extreme cooling is not necessary, for if a gas is held in a confined space and is subjected to high pressure, heat is given off as it undergoes compressioncompression,
external stress applied to an object or substance, tending to cause a decrease in volume (see pressure). Gases can be compressed easily, solids and liquids to a very small degree if at all.
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 and it turns eventually to a liquid. Some cooling is, however, necessary; it was discovered by Thomas Andrews in 1869 that each gas has a definite temperaturetemperature,
measure of the relative warmth or coolness of an object. Temperature is measured by means of a thermometer or other instrument having a scale calibrated in units called degrees. The size of a degree depends on the particular temperature scale being used.
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, called its critical temperature, above which it cannot be liquefied, no matter what pressure is exerted upon it. A gas must, therefore, be cooled below its critical temperature before it can be liquefied. When a gas is compressed its molecules are forced closer together and, their vibratory motion being reduced, heat is given off. As compression proceeds, the speed of the molecules and the distances between them continue to decrease, until eventually the substance undergoes change of state and becomes liquid. Although before the 19th cent. a number of scientists had experimented in liquefying gases, Davy and Faraday are usually credited with being the first to achieve success. The production of liquefied gases in large quantities (and consequently their use in refrigeration) was made possible by the work of Z. F. Wroblewski and K. S. Olszewski, two Polish scientists. The work of Sir James Dewar is also important, especially in the liquefaction of air and its change to a solid. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes first liquefied helium. The critical temperature of helium is −267.9°C;, only a few degrees above absolute zero (−273.15°C;). The processes for the liquefaction of gases as developed by Linde and others form the basis for those used in modern refrigerationrefrigeration,
process for drawing heat from substances to lower their temperature, often for purposes of preservation. Refrigeration in its modern, portable form also depends on insulating materials that are thin yet effective.
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. Liquefied gases are much used in low-temperature research; some, e.g., liquid oxygen, find use as rocket propellants. See liquid airliquid air,
ordinary air that has been liquefied by compression and cooling to extremely low temperatures (see liquefaction). Its commercial preparation involves purification by washing to remove soluble impurities and by passage over calcium oxide (lime) to remove the carbon
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; low-temperature physicslow-temperature physics,
science concerned with the production and maintenance of temperatures much below normal, down to almost absolute zero, and with various phenomena that occur only at such temperatures.
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liquefaction

[‚lik·wə′fak·shən]
(physics)
A change in the phase of a substance to the liquid state; usually, a change from the gaseous to the liquid state, especially of a substance which is a gas at normal pressure and temperature.

liquefaction

1. The sudden, large decrease of shearing resistance of a cohesionless soil caused by a collapse of the soil structure, produced by shock or small shear strains, associated with a sudden but temporary increase of pore water pressures.
2. The process of transforming a soil from a solid state to a liquid state, usually as a result of increased pore pressure and reduced shearing resistance. For example, an action in which a soil deposit (e.g., loose sand) loses its shear resistance temporarily and takes on the character of a liquid; such action, for example, may occur during an earthquake.
References in periodicals archive ?
There is no a unique relationship between the stress ratio at the onset of static liquefaction [[eta].
The term of the SPA will extend for twenty years beyond the date of first commercial delivery of the third train of the Corpus Christi Liquefaction Project, with an extension option of up to ten years.
This paper is aimed to assess the liquefaction potential of river alluvium (as discussed in the following section) at Diamer Basha dam site considering the above mentioned values of seismic parameters as input in the liquefaction analysis.
Reportedly, these heat exchangers will be used in a coal liquefaction plant, where coal is processed into gas and then further into liquid fuels.
We have provided our LNG technology and equipment to baseload LNG projects around the world, but this will be our first large-scale order to be placed and operating in the US Cove Point will be a major liquefaction facility and we are pleased that our industry leading expertise has been selected for this project.
Cheniere also announced that its subsidiary, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, had entered into a partial assignment agreement and related accords with Total Gas & Power North America, whereby Sabine Liquefaction would progressively gain access to Total's send-out capacity and other services provided under its terminal use agreement with Sabine Pass LNG.
Numerous studies to evaluate the liquefaction potential in a soil deposit have been done.
The significance of damage which can be caused by liquefaction has been recognised for many years (e.
This paper adopts XRD to characterize the variation of the residue crystallinity in the liquefaction process of Chinese Fir.
Liquefaction is a common characteristic of most earthquakes.
We've seen localized examples of soil liquefaction as extreme as this before, but the distance and extent of damage in Japan were unusually severe," said Scott Ashford, a professor of geotechnical engineering at Oregon State University and a member of this research team.
The aim of the present laboratory study was to determine the influence of soil saturation level on the liquefaction of Hostun RF sand across a wide range of Skempton coefficient B values (between 0.