livery companies


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Related to livery companies: Great Twelve City Livery Companies

livery companies,

London trade guildsguilds
or gilds,
economic and social associations of persons engaging in the same business or craft, typical of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Membership was by profession or craft, and the primary function was to establish local control over that profession or
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 incorporated by royal charter, deriving their name from the assumption of distinctive dress (livery) by their members. Edward III granted the first charters in the 14th cent., and most of the existing companies had been incorporated by the 17th cent. Several, however, have been formed in the 20th cent., including the Scientific Instrument Makers and the Air Pilots and Navigators. Liverymen were not artisans or journeymen but rather the controlling elite of their trades. In addition to regulating conditions of apprenticeship and standards of work, they elected the local government of the City of London and had the sole power to confer on members the freedom of the city, a necessary prerequisite to the practice of any trade. They still elect the lord mayor of London, now a purely ceremonial office. By the 18th cent. more competitive trade practices and early industrial expansion eroded the guilds' practical power over their trades, but they retained their roles as administrators of trusts and benefactors of educational institutions. The Mercers founded St. Paul's School as early as 1509, and to the present day the companies continue to endow colleges and scholarships, particularly in the field of technical education. There are currently close to 100 livery companies. Twelve of them, according to an order of precedence established by Henry VIII, are known as the great companies—the Mercers, Grocers, Drapers, Fishmongers, Goldsmiths, Skinners, Merchant Taylors, Haberdashers, Salters, Ironmongers, Vintners, and Clothworkers.

Bibliography

See W. Herbert, The History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London (1937, repr. 1968); W. F. Kahl, The Development of London Livery Companies (1960); G. Unwin, The Guilds and Companies of London (4th ed. 1964).

References in periodicals archive ?
The next model by land represents the twelve signs of the Zodiac, corresponding to London's "Great Twelve livery companies," (88) and an "Astrologian" honors the Lord Mayor in a speech promoting mercy and justice ([A7V]).
The attorney for the livery companies argued his clients would "suffer irreparable injury to their livelihoods, businesses and industry" should customers be allowed to use the apps.
Under the new rules, livery companies must own and control licenses for livery drivers, and drivers will only be able to have a livery driver's license if they are employed by a livery company.
Doolittle, The City of London and its Livery Companies (London, 1982), Glossary, pp.
The event was hosted by The Livery Companies - 108 trade associations based in the City.
The Hollybank Trust's chief executive Pam King, will be attending the Livery Companies of the City of London's luncheon for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee, at Westminster Palace on Tuesday.
Originally individuals wanting to work in certain trades had to apply for the Freedom through livery companies and guilds, which controlled the majority of crafts in the City.
Jefferson presents the Warden's Account Books of one of the 12 big livery companies in the City of London from 1344 to 1520, with Modern English translation facing pages of the original Norman French, Latin, or Middle English, perhaps depending on whose day it in the office it was.
Jane, who lives in Wooler, trained at The Cordon Bleu in London before going on to work for Leith's Good Food in the City providing catering for financial institutions, government departments, livery companies, The Orient Express and many more.
9) Malone Society, Collections III: A Calendar of Dramatic Records in the Books of the Livery Companies of London, ed.
The seven City Livery companies involved in the food industry who initiated the annual lecture six years ago--the Bakers, Butchers, Cooks, Farmers, Fishmongers, Fruiterers and Poulters--together provide the historic setting of Guildhall, London.
Also deeply involved in the capital's livery companies, Bryan was apprenticed to the Gold and Silver Wyre Drawers' Livery Company in 1952 and many years later served there as a master.