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practice and profession of influencing governmental decisions, carried out by agents who present the concerns of special interests to legislators and administrators. The term originated in the United States of the 1830s, when representatives of interest groups tended to congregate in the lobbies of Congress and state legislatures. It is now used in a broader sense to include attempts to influence any governmental actions.

In the United States lobbying has become an accepted and ubiquitous part of the political system; while federal and state legislators are technically representatives of geographical areas, they spend much of their time with lobbyists, and can be said at times to be responding to interest groups rather than to their constituents, to the degree that legislation drafted by lobbyists is sometimes introduced. Organizations such as corporations, financial institutions, labor unions, professional associations, educational groups, medical interests, farm alliances, and various public interest and social issue groups like Common Cause, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, the National Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League, the National Rifle Association, and the National Coalition for the Homeless maintain permanent lobbies in Washington and in state capitals to protect and further their interests. Lobbyists often deal directly with governmental decisionmakers, supplying technical information, making political threats or promises, and supplying friendship, entertainment, and other favors. Their indirect methods include the use of the mass media and mailing and telephone campaigns (some purporting to come from the "grass roots") and the organization of campaign funding vehicles known as political action committeespolitical action committee
(PAC), U.S. organization formed by a corporation, labor union, or association to raise money for political activity. Funds can be gathered by voluntary contributions from members, employees, or shareholders.
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The potential for corruption, especially bribery of officials, has given lobbying an unsavory connotation and has led to many attempts to regulate it, first at the state and later at the national level. The basic federal law has been the Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946, which requires registration of and regular financial reports from all individuals and agents seeking to influence legislation. In 1995, Congress passed a new bill intended to strengthen registration and disclosure requirements and to include within the definition of "lobbyist" some, e.g., lawyers, who had not previously been so designated.


See V. O. Key, Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups (5th ed. 1964); A. M. Scott et al., Congress and Lobbies (1966); S. Farkas, Urban Lobbying (1971); G. Wooton, Interest Groups (1971); M. T. Hayes, Lobbyists and Legislators (1984); C. Barnes, The Politics of Policy-Making and Pressure Groups (1987); R. G. Kaiser, So Damn Much Money (2009).

References in periodicals archive ?
Contrary to its negative public perception, lobbying is a legitimate and regulated channel through which organizations and individuals influence policy in a Parliamentary democracy.
However, several US-based entities including corporates such as Boeing and some industry groupings - including Alliance for Fair Trade with India (AFTI) and Chamber of Commerce of the USA - have stepped up their lobbying with the American lawmakers on India-related issues, as per the latest lobby disclosure reports.
And collectively, the industry has emerged victorious from many lobbying battles in Brussels, with key victories on banking regulation, hedge fund regulation, and complicated financial products such as derivatives, often at the cost of regulation in the public interest.
The authors consider whether lobbying should be regulated in the European Union and how it affects free trade.
In reality, both positions have merit and that is what makes lobbying such an interesting practice.
Keywords Lobbying * Position * Attitudes * Media Business community * General public
Lobbying and advocacy is a process of influencing what others people feel, think and believe so that changes can happen the way the influencer want them to happen lobbying and advocacy can
One thing is certain: The way lobbying is done affects the ethical culture of the institution.
As pressure mounts on the Legislature to pass a bill declaring a moratorium on natural gas exploitation using the controversial hydraulic fracturing technique, industry has poured over one million dollars into lobbying the Governor and the New York State Legislature in the first 6 months of 2010.
AND WHEREAS it is desirable that public office holders and the public be able to know who is engaged in lobbying activities;
The Traditional Values Coalition is deeply concerned about the grass-roots lobbying requirements in Section 220 of S.