The presentation combines descriptive prose typical of lower-level mathematics texts with rigorous proofs written in logical symbols
A few abstract logical symbols
also have origins as letters of the alphabet, emptied entirely of their linguistic content and then put to work as true abstractions.
The logical symbols
for "and", "or", "not" and "implies" are used.
The concept of fuzziness, "of multivalued quantities, undefined identities, and shifting boundaries" (12), emerged when Russell could not reduce mathematics to logical symbols
, which means that objects are undifferentiated at the microscopic level.
In the first chapter, the basic logical symbols
are given along with their introduction and elimination rules.