In the first 2 days after metamorphosis, juvenile slugs were observed repeatedly placing their mouths over the lophophores
The seawater flows from above the colony, between the tentacles, and then under the canopy of lophophores
to exit the colony either at the canopy edge or through openings ("chimneys") in the canopy (Banta et al.
The colonies are composed of a sheet of physiologically connected individuals (zooids) bearing lophophores
(crowns of ciliated tentacles) that form a canopy over most of the colony (Fig 1A-D).
The excurrent space is below the lophophore
canopy, and water that enters this space will escape the colony at the periphery.
Spermatozeugmata generated different patterns of waves depending on whether they were located in the paternal coeloms (visceral and lophophoral), water column, or maternal lophophore
Coupled with the decrease in lophophore
diameter was a decrease in the number of tentacles per lophophore
(G - 48.
Under natural conditions with light from above, the colony is oriented with its frontal surface and lophophore
facing away from the water surface; thus, the colony is shielded from the downward flux of particulate matter.
Brachiopods constitute a comparatively small phylum of sessile or sedentary marine invertebrates that possess a calcified shell and a ciliated lophophore
used in filter feeding (Hyman, 1959; Williams and Rowell, 1965; Rudwick, 1970).
The similarity between the feeding apparatus of pterobranchs and the lophophore
of bryozoans, brachiopods, and phoronids has long been known; the earliest reports on the pterobranchs considered them either related to, or included in, the Bryozoa (13-15).
These movements appear to allow some spermatozeugmata to remain within the lophophore
long enough to find the distal opening to the ITO.
In the latter case their possible lophophores
must have been rather small.
1) In contrast to the bivalves, the open constructions of the brachiopods lophophores
prevent from clogging with sediment particles in a high-energy environment.