0 used for the input into the CSA, we calculated an upper bound and lower bound
by subtracting the lower bound
and upper bound estimates of F, respectively, from Z (Table 2, Fig.
The lower bound
is achieved when no measurement error is present.
Provision of a conservative, meaningful lower bound
for benefits and return to taxpayer investment in each library.
Each participant read a short case, viewed distributional information for his or her treatment group for each of five ratios, and then recorded an upper and lower bound
of investigation for each of the five ratios.
The third type of boundary violation, violation of the lower bound
derived under the scenario of costly short selling is:
A semi-empirical equation that "mixes" the upper and lower bounds
was developed by Tsai and Halpin , which can be written for the tensile modulus  as:
Using these, we discuss the closeness of the lower bound
on the ideal GMRES approximation that is derived from the radius of the polynomial numerical hull.
Maximum value among the values of first 'legitimate' nodes and leader value is the lower bound
for the leader ([[alpha].
The estimated value, or "point estimate," in this case is $1 million, while the confidence interval ranges from a lower bound
of $880,000 to an upper bound of $1.
The sub-gradient method used in our approach was designed to maximize a lower bound
of the objective function value of the optimal solution of the original capacitated facility location problem, see Janacek and Gabrisova (2006).
It is clearly shown, that for this load case we can find the exact plastic load carrying capacity and then extend the lower bound
method to be a general design method.
To obtain the pessimistic lower bound
o the reliability of FT we assume that the network has failed whenever more than one conjugate loop has a faulty element or more than one conjugate switch in the last stage fails, shown as f3.