madder


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madder,

common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs, especially abundant in N South America. The family is important economically for several tropical crops, e.g., coffee, quinine, and ipecac, and for many ornamentals, e.g., the gardenia, bluet, madder, bedstraw, and partridgeberry. Coffeecoffee,
a tree, its seeds, and the beverage made from them. The coffee tree, a small evergreen of the genus Coffea, has smooth, ovate leaves and clusters of fragrant white flowers that mature into deep red fruits about 1-2 in. (1.27 cm) long.
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 beans come from several species of the genus Coffea, bushes and trees of the Old World tropics; many are African. The medicine quininequinine
, white crystalline alkaloid with a bitter taste. Before the development of more effective synthetic drugs such as quinacrine, chloroquine, and primaquine, quinine was the specific agent in the treatment of malaria.
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 comes from the bark of evergreen trees (cinchonacinchona
or chinchona
, name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder family native to the Andean highlands from Bolivia to Colombia and also to some mountainous regions of Panama and Costa Rica.
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) native to the Andes. The drug ipecacipecac
, drug obtained from the dried roots of a creeping shrub, Cephaelis (or Psychotria) ipecacuanha, native to Brazil but cultivated in other tropical climates.
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, or ipecacuanha, is obtained from the dried rhizomes and roots of Psychotria (Cephaëlis) ipecacuanha and related species, shrubby herbaceous perennials of tropical forests in Central and South America. Madder (Rubia tinctorum), also called turkey red, is an Old World dye plant native to S Europe. The herb's long fleshy root was the principal source of various fast, brilliant red dye pigments until artificial production of alizarinalizarin
, or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, mordant vegetable dye obtained originally from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum), in which it occurs as a glucoside. The term also includes a group of synthetic dyestuffs prepared from coal-tar derivatives.
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, the color principle of madder. The plant was known to ancient peoples—madder-dyed cloth has been found in Egyptian mummy cases—and was cultivated in the East for centuries and in Europe from the late Middle Ages. Madder and the two major sources of blue pigment, indigo and woad, were the most important dye plants until the development of synthetic aniline dyes in the 19th cent. Gardenias [for Scottish-American naturalist Alexander GardenGarden, Alexander,
c.1730–1791, Scottish-American naturalist and physician, b. Aberdeenshire, Scotland. He settled in Charleston, S.C., where he collected mineral, plant, and animal specimens and discovered new species, including the amphibians known as the congo snake or
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] are evergreen shrubs and trees (genus Gardenia) of the Old World subtropics. Most of the cultivated types are varieties of G. jasminoides, called also Cape jasmine but unrelated to the true jasmine. The heavily fragrant and showy blossoms make gardenias popular corsage and greenhouse plants. Several native North American wildflowers belong to the madder family. The bedstraws (species of Galium, an almost cosmopolitan weed) were formerly used for mattress filling because of their pleasing odor. The partridgeberry, or squawberry (Mitchella repens), is a small, trailing evergreen plant with scarlet berrylike fruits sometimes used medicinally or for winter decorations. The bluet (Houstonia caerulea) is a favorite spring flower of open woods and grassy meadows in the Northeast. Called also innocence and quaker-ladies, it has a distinctive tiny four-petaled blue flower. Other species of Houstonia, as well as the unrelated cornflower, are also called bluets. Phylogenetically, the madder family is closely related to the honeysuckle family. The madder family is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Rubiales.

madder

[′mad·ər]
(materials)
The root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorium), pulverized and used as source of glucosides to produce alizarin by fermentation. Also known as gamene.

madder

1. any of several rubiaceous plants of the genus Rubia, esp the Eurasian R. tinctoria, which has small yellow flowers and a red fleshy root
2. the root of this plant
References in periodicals archive ?
Painting in dyes of pomegranate rind, myrobalan, turmeric, black, catechu, madder and indigo with alum as mordant; 124 x 105 cm.
Since madder root was not grown in the colonies, American soldiers had to settle for blue uniforms, dyed with indigo.
Madder says that these findings provide support for further research of arteries narrowed with LCP.
Above, Coventry Beer Festival bar manager Mick Madder
I have never used the exchanges to bet, unlike the majority of gamblers, but if someone on the exchanges offers huge odds about Trabolgan for the King George when he was trading at just 3-1 with the bookmakers, whoever takes the bet must be madder than Mad Jack McMad.
With madder as grail, Murphy set out to get to the bottom of a Turkmen folk saying: "Carpets are our soul.
Dando told the court Baldwin had said he was getting madder and madder.
I filled my craving with food--getting madder still with my expanding girth and with my inability to make more yellow.
I still have the answer machine message recordings and you can hear him getting madder and madder because I wasn't there.
I think they're going to come out madder than hell (today),'' Twins manager Ron Gardenhire said of his team.
If my brother knocks over my tower of blocks I'll be madder than Mommy when he breaks something I'll be madder than the sky in a thunderstorm I'll be madder than a tree when it falls down I'll be madder than flowers in a rainstorm I'll be madder than the ocean when the waves get high I'll be madder than a ship when it sinks I'll be mad as mad can be But I'll forgive him.
The big Reagan biography came out, and the Republican powers that be are madder than a bunch of roosters in a henhouse after vasectomy surgery.