The impedance measured by distance relay is dependent on the power system structural condition (short circuit level), angle of load and voltage magnitude ratio at the line ends (pre-fault operational condition).

The first parameters (system parameters) can be divided into two groups; First is called structural conditions (such as short circuit level) and second is called operational condition (load angle and voltage magnitude ratio at the line ends).

The region behind the upper portion of the front also has a relatively high

magnitude ratio error, though not as severe as in the corner.

The transmission coefficient is calculated from the magnitude ratio of discrete Fourier transforms of electric fields at the output and input planes of filter.

The transmission coefficient calculated from the magnitude ratio of discrete Fourier transforms of the electric fields at the output and input planes of filter.

Two metrics evaluated change in pressure magnitude: medial

magnitude ratio and pressure sum ratio.

When the noise-free WT peak magnitude ratio of 60 kHz/[A.

The table also shows the level of dominance of the primary frequency/mode as determined by the peak magnitude ratios for each case.

50] is relatively small, the

magnitude ratio is significant.

Since the presence of noise will have the least effect on the zero-degree direction peak WT magnitudes (which were always the largest), one of the angles selected for the WT magnitude ratio should be the zero-degree direction.

Figures 1 through 4 (shown with new figure numbers here), from the previous work [1], show the WT peak magnitude ratios for each combination of a given frequency, source type and mode as a function of the two radiation directions for each ratio.

Table A-1(a) Source identification process using ratios of WT peak

magnitude ratio of 45[degrees]/0[degrees] for in-plane dipole source Source Depth Primary Primary Table to Conclusion type freq.