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Music of or relating to the style of jazz that lies between the traditional and the modern



an American literary and sociopolitical magazine, published from 1911 to 1962. The magazine was called Masses in 1911–17, Liberator in 1918–24, New Masses in 1926–47, Masses and Mainstream in 1948–57, and Mainstream in 1957–62.

In the first decade of the 20th century, Mainstream attracted progressive writers, including J. Reed, W. O’Neill, and C. Sandburg. It printed a shortened translation of V. I. Lenin’s “Letters to American Workers” and M. Gorky’s memoirs about V. I. Lenin. In the fall of 1919, Mainstream became the organ of the Communist Party of the USA. In the 1930’s, after overcoming sectarian mistakes, Mainstream played an outstanding role in uniting American writers on a broad antifascist and general democratic platform. It printed works by T. Dreiser, E. Hemingway, T. Wolfe, E. Caldwell, and M. Gold.

Mainstream defended socialist realism and democratic and revolutionary national traditions and called for the assimilation of the methods of Soviet literature. In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s the magazine condemned decadent bourgeois art and McCarthyism and spoke out in favor of world peace. During those years, Mainstream printed P. Bonosky, J. H. Lawson, W. Du Bois, J. North, and S. Finkelstein.


Gilenson, B. A. “la videl rozhdenie novogo mira: Publitsistika Dzhona Rida 1917–1920 gg.” Voprosy literatury, 1961, no. 11.
Echoes of Revolt: “The Masses” 1911–1917. Edited by W. O’Neill. Chicago, 1966.
“New Masses”: An Anthology of the Rebel Thirties. Edited by J. North. New York, 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
The regular teachers of the mainstream classes completed a brief questionnaire in May 1986, indicating the academic behavior of the mainstreamed students in the sample.
At the end of the academic year, data from school records included attendance of the mainstreamed students (total number of days absent in the school year), final report card grades in the mainstream subject, and standardized reading test scores administered in April 1986 for mainstreamed students and their regular class peers at both school levels.
The final grades of the mainstreamed students and the regular students were compared, using the Mann Whitney U Test.
In the junior high schools, no significant difference between the grades earned by the mainstreamed and regular students was found.
Although mainstreamed students earned lower grades in the elementary school, only one student with disabilities across all three schools actually received a failing grade in the mainstream class.
The strong positive relationships between classroom academic behavior and final grades are consistent with earlier work, in which regular teachers described the progress of their mainstreamed students in terms of academic behaviors (Truesdell, 1985).
The comparison of final grades of regular and mainstreamed students indicates that, in the junior high schools, the students with mild disabilities were as successful academically as the regular students with whom they were placed and earned grades similar to their regular class peers.