manakin

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manakin

(măn`əkən), common name for stocky, tiny birds, most measuring less than 5 in. (12.5 cm) long, comprising 59 species in the family Pipridae. Manakins are found throughout the forested areas of Central and South America, where they feed on a diet of small fruits picked on the wing, and occasional insects. They are noted for their curiously modified wing feathers, with which the birds produce a series of whirring and snapping sounds during flight. The sexes differ markedly. The females of most of the species are inconspicuous olive green birds. Males are strikingly arrayed. Primarily greenish brown to black, they have brilliant patches of red, blue, and yellow, often with further ornamental modifications, such as the long central tail feathers of the Fandango birds, genus Chiroxiphia. In manakins, as in their relatives, the cotingas, male ornamentation is often coupled with elaborate mating displays. Among the Fandango birds, e.g., C. pareola, two or more males cooperate to perform a complex series of acrobatics in order to attract female onlookers. Gould's manakin, Manacus vitellinus, clears an area of the forest floor of litter between two saplings and performs a leaping dance, snapping his wings noisily and flitting from branch to branch. When he is joined by a female, mating occurs and the female flies off to lay her 2 pale brown, mottled eggs. The male is polygamous and mates with as many females as he attracts. The female weaves delicate hammock nests of grass, slung in ferns or saplings and typically overlying water. She is entirely responsible for incubation and care of the young. Manakins are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Aves, order Passeriformes, family Pipridae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Charles Darwin was fascinated by club winged manakins and wrote in 1871 about the remarkable diversity of the sounds made by these birds and their importance for "sexual purposes".
The researchers found that in the area where the two manakin species come together, females are attracted to yellow-collared males more than to white-collared males, but only when there are lots of other yellow males within leks.
During breeding season, male manakins defend neighboring performance stages.
How does a club-winged manakin create the "ting" sound?
Emily DuVal of the University of California, Berkeley finds a similar scenario among lance-tailed manakins, but speculates that the betas reap another benefit.
Sex identification of Pin-tailed Manakins (Ilicura militaris: Pipridae) using the polymerase chain reaction and its applications to behavioral studies.
Forest lekking birds such as manakins, cock-of-the-rocks, peacock pheasants, and birds of paradise may clean debris and pluck leaves from their courts on or near the forest floor (Gilliard 1959, Sick 1967, Johnsgard 1994, Endler and Thery 1996).
Manakins are small lekking passerines that inhabit primary and secondary forests of the Neotropics (Worthington 1982, Blake and Loiselle 2002, Snow 2004).
Higher-level phylogeny and morphological evolution of tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Ayes: Tyrannida).
As with almost all taxa, the taxonomy of the manakins and cotingas is in a state of flux.
Katrina Lukianchuk, University of Windsor, Ontario, "Social hierarchy and the development of dancing ability in young Long-tailed Manakins.