The presence of this enzyme in pallial fluid of both clams and oysters is likely a result of diapedesis of hemocytes into the mantle cavity
and/or mantle epithelial cell secretions.
In many gastropods the anus, gills and mantle cavity
are rotated 180 degrees.
across the roof of the right half of the mantle cavity
(Figs 1D, 2C, 4B).
It uses a sort of jet propulsion to pull water into the mantle cavity
of its shell and then blow it out the siphon beneath the tentacles.
The OIT was then inserted through one of the slits and into the mantle cavity
The family Malacobdellidae comprises a single genus, Malacobdella, with 6 species inhabiting the mantle cavity
of bivalves (Jensen & Sadeghian 2005).
None of the 12 oysters sampled in August 2006 had any larvae in the mantle cavity
and most showed signs of diminishing gonad sizes.
For each three stocks of healthy scallops, 24 scallops were injected in the muscle, 24 in the mantle cavity
and 24 were simply exposed to the mixture being added to the seawater in the aquaria.
To date ripe ova have only been found in the mantle cavity
According to Starr's classification of the symbiosis continuum (Ahmadjian & Paracer 1986), the ciliate Conchophthirus acuminatus (Claparede & Lachmann, 1858) (Scuticociliatida: Conchophthiridae) is endosymbiotic (residing most of its lifespan inside the mantle cavity
of Dreissena), persistent (remains within its host for a long time); obligate (so highly adapted to its symbiotic existence that it cannot survive long outside its host), and highly specific (found virtually only in Dreissena spp.
Cilia appeared in the mantle cavity
and began beating (stage 32) (Fig.
The shell plays a role in primary defense for protection of the organ system of the mantle cavity
, mainly against physical and mechanical stimuli.