sea turtle

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sea turtle,

name for several species of large marine turtlesturtle,
a reptile of the order Chelonia, with strong, beaked, toothless jaws and, usually, an armorlike shell. The shell normally consists of bony plates overlaid with horny shields.
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 found in tropical and subtropical oceans. These turtles are modified for life in the ocean by having flipperlike forelimbs without toes and lightweight shells. Their heads are too large to be withdrawn into the shell. They spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to lay their eggs. Nearly all species have a circumglobal distribution although there are differences between the Atlantic and the Pacific populations. Most sea turtles are found in North American waters as far N as the U.S. S Atlantic coast and Baja California.

All sea turtle species are declining in numbers, owing in large part to the destruction of the eggs, which are widely used as food in tropical regions. Sea turtle meat is also eaten, and there is a market for turtle oil, hide, and shell. In a few places, such as Sarawak, harvesting of eggs is regulated by law to insure propagation of the species. The size of sea turtles has also decreased, owing to the hunting of large specimens.

The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, with greenish to brownish skin and shell, formerly reached weights of 1,000 lb (450 kg); the largest now found are about 4 ft (120 cm) long and weigh about 500 lb (225 kg). The green turtle feeds chiefly on marine vegetation and is most abundant in shallow water. The loggerhead, Caretta caretta, is a large-headed brown to reddish turtle. Chiefly carnivorous, it ranges from open oceans to coastal salt marshes and stream mouths. Like the green turtle it sometimes comes ashore in uninhabited places to bask.

The hawksbill, or tortoiseshell turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, may reach 30 in. (75 cm) in length and weigh 100 lbs (45 kg). The horny plates of its shell are translucent and have a variegated color pattern, chiefly brown and yellow. These plates have long been valued for the making of ornamental objects. Although tortoiseshell has to a large extent been replaced in many applications by plastic, a renewed demand for the genuine material poses a serious threat to the hawksbill.

The ridleys, the smallest sea turtles, inhabit shallow offshore waters. The 2-ft (60-cm) long, gray Kemp's, or Atlantic, ridley, Lepidochelys kempii, breeds only in the Gulf of Mexico, although the young are often carried by the Gulf Stream to the Carribean Sea and Europe. The slightly larger, greenish olive, or Pacific, ridley (L. olivacea), also known as the oliveback, is found in the Indian and Pacific oceans. The leatherbackleatherback,
marine turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate waters around the world. The largest of all turtles, it may reach a length of 7 1-2 ft (230 cm) and weigh 1200 lb (540 kg).
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 is the largest of all turtles; it belongs to a separate family from the other sea turtles.

All sea turtles other than the leatherback are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Reptilia, order Chelonia, family Chelonidae; the leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelidae.

Bibliography

See J. R. Spotila, Saving Sea Turtles (2011).

sea turtle

[′sē ‚tərd·əl]
(vertebrate zoology)
Any of various marine turtles, principally of the families Cheloniidae and Dermochelidae, having paddle-shaped feet.
References in periodicals archive ?
Manjula Tiwari, Research Scientist Marine Turtle Ecology and Assessment Program, USA; Dr.
Capture and trade of marine turtles at San Andres, Southern Peru.
Previous studies have stated that marine turtles do not use Bahrain's coastal zones for nesting purposes although they do utilize the country's marine waters for forging and other purposes throughout their life cycle.
Mahmood Akhtar Cheema, Country Representative, IUCN Pakistan said that the broader objective was to reduce the direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality in Pakistan, and to protect, conserve and rehabilitate marine turtle habitats, which is in line with IUCN's mission to influence, encourage and assist societies to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and ensure any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable".
The community of Mano Juan in Saona Island has become a mayor ecotourism attraction in the past few years, thanks to Pelagio Paulino (aka Negro), a fisherman who turned conservationist and protects the marine turtles that come every year to Saona Island to nest.
The Sultanate is one of the world's most important thriving habitats for marine turtles and together with the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs (MECA) we will be able to continue our work which is vital in preserving and sustaining vulnerable creatures in a fragile natural ecosystem.
Washington, DC: IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication.
However, all six of Australia's species of marine turtle are protected by its Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, having recently experienced threats to their survival, especially from pollution and changes to their habitat.
FAMILY OF PERCENT OF SPECIES SPECIES THREATENED Butterfly fish 0 Marine turtle 100 Eagle ray 50 Pelican 13 Damsel fish Hammerhead shark 57 Sea horse 43 Puffer fish 13 Source: McClenachan et al, 2011
Maharashtra, March 29 -- The marine turtle conservation movement has been underway in Maharashtra since a decade.

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