marque and reprisal

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marque and reprisal:

see privateeringprivateering,
former usage of war permitting privately owned and operated war vessels (privateers) under commission of a belligerent government to capture enemy shipping.
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References in periodicals archive ?
17) Congress is authorized to "grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water.
Elaine Supkis, Ron Paul Wrong on Letter of Marque and Reprisal, CULTURE OF LIFE NEWS (May 10, 2011, 2:32 PM), http://e,smews/wordpress.
Marshall, Putting Privateers in Their Place: The Applicability of the Marque and Reprisal Clause to Undeclared Wars, 64 U.
In a frequently cited article published during the Vietnam War, Charles Lofgren argued that the Framers' grant to Congress of the power to issue letters of marque and reprisal created a residual category of all forms of undeclared war.
The Law of Prize: Letters of Marque and Reprisal and Rules Concerning Captures on Water
Eventually, letters of marque and reprisal evolved into commissions "to fit out an armed vessel and employ it in the capture of the merchant shipping belonging to the enemy's subjects, the holder of [a letter] being called a privateer or corsair.
The weapon our country's founders crafted in the Constitution to defend our nation against terrorism on the high seas were for Congress to grant letters of marque and reprisal.
The September 11 Marque and Reprisal Act of 2001 would allow the president to appoint such forces.
Once current law is extended beyond the high seas to the skies, then Congress can take the next step, granting letters of marque and reprisal to guide and limit the utilization of non-government armed forces against the current terrorist threats.