Pyrometallurgical process includes matte smelting
, converting, fire refining, and electrorefining of blister copper .
Material is arranged in chapters on physical extraction operations, hyrdrometallurgical operations, gas-solid and solid-solid reactors and particle conversion operations, blast furnaces, smelting reduction operations, steelmaking operations, sulfide and matte smelting
and converting operations, electric melting and smelting furnaces, molten salt electrolysis operations, and extractive processing routes.
The Peirce-Smith converter, used in the field of metallurgy during the second stage of nickel and copper matte smelting
to convert sulfides to metal, was patented in 1909 and 100 years later remains a workhorse of the industry.
Physical Chemistry of Direct Nickel Matte Smelting
, Sulphide Smelting '98, eds.
Although one of the most recently developed processes, it has the distinction of being the simplest of the new matte smelting