The success of this industrially relevant project will produce a step change in the deployment of soft materials, with the consequent enhancement of the European competitiveness in the forthcoming Soft Matter Era
and the establishment of the applicant as a research leader in the field.
Expression (4) is supposed to be describing the expansion of the Universe from the beginning of the so called matter era (t [approximately equal to] 1.
The occurrence of such CMB and the beginning of the matter era happen at different times, but, for our purpose here, we can assume that they occured approximately at the same time t [approximately equal to] 0, since we will be dealing with very large numbers (billion of years).
For reasons that will be clear soon, it is useful to begin with the matter era.
This idea is useful to link the matter era to the earlier radiation era.
If so, then the matter era began when matter waves started to appear in the pre-existing field of electromagnetic radiation according to the mechanism .
0] bulk states allowed to protons and antiprotons, although suggested by the numerical values of (3,12) only, is attracting because it links radiation era and matter era, at the beginning of which couples of matter/antimatter particles were in fact formed.
The same equations could in principle estimate the local T even during the subsequent matter era, when the bombardment with energetic neutrons allowed forming heavy elements; yet the concurrent clustering of matter determined a structure of the universe locally inhomogeneous, so at that later time a unique average T does no longer make sense.
3,20) help to guess the size of the universe at the beginning of the matter era.
0], confirms that actually the radiation era precedes the matter era.