mausoleum

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mausoleum

(môsəlē`əm), a sepulchral structure or tombtomb,
vault or chamber constructed either partly or entirely above ground as a place of interment. Although it is often used as a synonym for grave, the word is derived from the Greek tymbos [burial ground]. It may also designate a memorial shrine erected above a grave.
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, especially one of some size and architectural pretension, so called from the sepulcher of that name at Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, erected (c.352 B.C.) in memory of MausolusMausolus
, d. 353 B.C., Persian satrap, ruler over Caria (c.376–353 B.C.). He was always more or less independent. One of the satraps who revolted against Artaxerxes II, he later allied himself with the Persian kings.
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 of Caria. It was a magnificent white marble structure, considered by the ancients one of the Seven Wonders of the WorldSeven Wonders of the World,
in ancient classifications, were the Great Pyramid of Khufu (see pyramid) or all the pyramids with or without the sphinx; the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, with or without the walls; the mausoleum at Halicarnassus; the Artemision at Ephesus; the
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.

Presumably in the form of an Ionic peristyle set on a lofty and massive base that contained the sarcophagus, it was surmounted by a stepped pyramid on whose truncated apex was a marble quadriga, or four-horse chariot. It was richly decorated with sculpture, including works of ScopasScopas
, Greek sculptor, fl. 4th cent. B.C., b. Paros. Although numbered among the Athenians, he wandered from place to place and did not attach himself to any school. He was the first to express violent feeling in marble faces.
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 and, quite probably, of PraxitelesPraxiteles
, fl. c.370–c.330 B.C., famous Attic sculptor, probably the son of Cephisodotus. His Hermes with the Infant Dionysus, found in the Heraeum, Olympia, in 1877, is the only example of an undisputed extant original by any of the greatest ancient masters.
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. The building itself was demolished for the purpose of reusing the material, but some of the sculpture was recovered (1846) for the British Museum.

A notable Roman mausoleum (135–39) is that of Hadrian in Rome. It was originally a great circular drum sheathed in marble and perhaps covered by a conical stepped roof of masonry; its form, however, has been changed beyond recognition. It is now called Castel Sant' AngeloCastel Sant' Angelo
, Hadrian's Mausoleum,
or Hadrian's Mole,
massive round construction on the right bank of the Tiber in Rome. Originally built (A.D.
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.

Under the MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 emperors of India was built a remarkable series of domed mausoleums, many of them used as pleasure pavilions during the owner's lifetime. The most celebrated mausoleum, built by Shah Jahan at Agra, is known as the Taj MahalTaj Mahal
, mausoleum, Agra, Uttar Pradesh state, N India, on the Yamuna River. It is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian Islamic architecture.
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. Notable mausoleums of modern times are those of Napoleon under the Dôme des Invalides, Paris; of President U. S. Grant on Riverside Drive, New York City; and of Lenin in Red Square, Moscow. In the United States the term mausoleum is used loosely to describe any sepulchral building above the surface of the ground.

Mausoleum

A large and stately tomb, or a building housing such a tomb or tombs; originally the tomb for King Mausolos of Carla, about 350 B.C.

Mausoleum

 

a burial monument. The word derives from the tomb of the Carian king Mausolus (died in the middle of the fourth century B.C.) in the city of Halicarnassus. Mausoleums were common in ancient Rome and in medieval Eastern countries. In socialist architecture there is a new principle of mausoleum construction: the addition of a tribune, which imparts social significance to the mausoleum (Lenin Mausoleum, Moscow; G. M. Dimitrov Mausoleum, Sofia, 1949, architects G. Ovcharov and R. Ribarov; and the burial vaults of Sukhe Bator and Choibalsan, Ulan Bator, 1950’s, architects B. S. Mezentsev and Chimid).

mausoleum

1. A commemorative edifice for the reception of a monument; a cenotaph. 2. A sepulchral chapel to contain tombs.
References in periodicals archive ?
But they have their friends, and there are worthwhile campaigns to restore two particularly interesting 19th-century mausolea containing the bodies of two most remarkable men.
Imperial Household Agency chief Toshio Yuasa and Hitoshi Yamaguchi, head of the agency's Archives and Mausolea Department, signed the original and the copy, completing the procedure.
Today we have a vigilance brigade so that no one touches the mausolea of Araouane and Gasser-Cheick," said Tahel Ould Sidy, leader of the unit, referring to two tombs in the greater Timbuktu region.
Inhumation changes from collective to individualised and from simple to more complex, including the development of a range of mausolea and of stele grave markers, all indications of increased social complexity.
In the first half of the century, this vocabulary was applied to mausolea in the Carthusian cemeteries of Bologna and Ferrara and the Vantiniano in Brescia, on which Berresford subsequently offers enlightening historical digressions.
26) In order to give it a little more context within the architect's career, let us turn to the Lutyens scholar Margaret Richardson: 'Apart from a few gravestones for his family and friends, Lutyens only designed two mausolea before the end of the First World War.
I particularly enjoyed the discussion of the kofun period, which begins with the huge mausolea assigned to early emperors such as Ojin and Nintoku--the 280-m long Hashihaka tumulus, for example, being one of the largest monuments of the ancient world.
The great nineteenth-century cemeteries, laid out as parks outside cities and filled with elaborate stone tombs and mausolea, have long been seen as problems after years of neglect and--worse--vandalism.
First laid out in the 1840s on a terraced hillside, the centre is dominated by a domed Greek Doric Pantheon flanked by arcaded galleries with a huge family monument in each bay, while the Romantic landscape beyond is filled with large and often inventive family mausolea in every conceivable style, including the Liberty of about 1900.
It continues with an examination of two architectural forms, the basilica and the rotunda, that were inherited from ancient Rome and exerted a powerful influence on the architecture of early medieval churches and mausolea.
Jill Lever provides more than a dry catalogue, for she constantly enlivens it with perceptive aesthetic analysis: for example, in a section on mausolea, monuments, and the Egyptian style, she explains how, 'in developing his ideas for the doorways to the [George] Washington tomb, he was reaching back to something primitive, archaic and finally prehistoric'; indeed, the tomb recalls the designs of Friedrich Gilly.
It conjures up images of the drum-shaped mausolea that Soane had admired in Italy (notably along the Via Appia), is capped with a saucer dome derived from the roof of the Pantheon, is dressed in sepulchral ornament, and has outlying fountains or urns.