mausoleum

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mausoleum

(môsəlē`əm), a sepulchral structure or tombtomb,
vault or chamber constructed either partly or entirely above ground as a place of interment. Although it is often used as a synonym for grave, the word is derived from the Greek tymbos [burial ground]. It may also designate a memorial shrine erected above a grave.
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, especially one of some size and architectural pretension, so called from the sepulcher of that name at Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, erected (c.352 B.C.) in memory of MausolusMausolus
, d. 353 B.C., Persian satrap, ruler over Caria (c.376–353 B.C.). He was always more or less independent. One of the satraps who revolted against Artaxerxes II, he later allied himself with the Persian kings.
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 of Caria. It was a magnificent white marble structure, considered by the ancients one of the Seven Wonders of the WorldSeven Wonders of the World,
in ancient classifications, were the Great Pyramid of Khufu (see pyramid) or all the pyramids with or without the sphinx; the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, with or without the walls; the mausoleum at Halicarnassus; the Artemision at Ephesus; the
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.

Presumably in the form of an Ionic peristyle set on a lofty and massive base that contained the sarcophagus, it was surmounted by a stepped pyramid on whose truncated apex was a marble quadriga, or four-horse chariot. It was richly decorated with sculpture, including works of ScopasScopas
, Greek sculptor, fl. 4th cent. B.C., b. Paros. Although numbered among the Athenians, he wandered from place to place and did not attach himself to any school. He was the first to express violent feeling in marble faces.
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 and, quite probably, of PraxitelesPraxiteles
, fl. c.370–c.330 B.C., famous Attic sculptor, probably the son of Cephisodotus. His Hermes with the Infant Dionysus, found in the Heraeum, Olympia, in 1877, is the only example of an undisputed extant original by any of the greatest ancient masters.
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. The building itself was demolished for the purpose of reusing the material, but some of the sculpture was recovered (1846) for the British Museum.

A notable Roman mausoleum (135–39) is that of Hadrian in Rome. It was originally a great circular drum sheathed in marble and perhaps covered by a conical stepped roof of masonry; its form, however, has been changed beyond recognition. It is now called Castel Sant' AngeloCastel Sant' Angelo
, Hadrian's Mausoleum,
or Hadrian's Mole,
massive round construction on the right bank of the Tiber in Rome. Originally built (A.D.
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.

Under the MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 emperors of India was built a remarkable series of domed mausoleums, many of them used as pleasure pavilions during the owner's lifetime. The most celebrated mausoleum, built by Shah Jahan at Agra, is known as the Taj MahalTaj Mahal
, mausoleum, Agra, Uttar Pradesh state, N India, on the Yamuna River. It is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian Islamic architecture.
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. Notable mausoleums of modern times are those of Napoleon under the Dôme des Invalides, Paris; of President U. S. Grant on Riverside Drive, New York City; and of Lenin in Red Square, Moscow. In the United States the term mausoleum is used loosely to describe any sepulchral building above the surface of the ground.

Mausoleum

A large and stately tomb, or a building housing such a tomb or tombs; originally the tomb for King Mausolos of Carla, about 350 B.C.

Mausoleum

 

a burial monument. The word derives from the tomb of the Carian king Mausolus (died in the middle of the fourth century B.C.) in the city of Halicarnassus. Mausoleums were common in ancient Rome and in medieval Eastern countries. In socialist architecture there is a new principle of mausoleum construction: the addition of a tribune, which imparts social significance to the mausoleum (Lenin Mausoleum, Moscow; G. M. Dimitrov Mausoleum, Sofia, 1949, architects G. Ovcharov and R. Ribarov; and the burial vaults of Sukhe Bator and Choibalsan, Ulan Bator, 1950’s, architects B. S. Mezentsev and Chimid).

mausoleum

1. A commemorative edifice for the reception of a monument; a cenotaph. 2. A sepulchral chapel to contain tombs.