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wholesale business of buying and slaughtering animals and then processing and distributing their carcasses to retailers. The livestock industry is among the largest in the world. In the United States, the plains of the Midwest and Southwest provided good conditions for inexpensively breeding livestock, which was then transported to centrally located packing centers, such as Chicago and Cincinnati, and marketed in the densely populated eastern states. Chicago's Union Stock Yards (1865) was the nation's largest livestock and packing center until the mid-20th cent. It was closed in 1971, because it was unable to compete with newer, more modern facilities. Modern meatpacking dates from the introduction of refrigerated railway cars. In 1869, George Hammond, a meatpacker in Detroit, shipped frozen beef to Boston in a car chilled with ice from the Great Lakes. By 1880 mechanical refrigeration was being used. The introduction of storage and distribution warehouses made possible the rapid and efficient marketing of meat. The grain belt and the high plains of the Midwest are still distribution centers for livestock products in the United States.

Meatpacking byproducts include hides for leather; edible fats; inedible fats for soap; bones for buttons; blood meal for fertilizer; hair for brushes; intestines for sausage casing; as well as gelatin, glue, and glycerin. Byproduct pharmaceuticals include pepsin, testosterone, liver extract, thyroxine, epinephrine, albumin, insulin, thromboplastin, bilirubin, and ACTH.

Federal legislation requires humane slaughtering methods and examination for disease for livestock killed for export or interstate trade. The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 extended inspections to intrastate trade. A new inspection system requiring scientific tests for bacteria was put in place in 1996. The laws are administered by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA's grading service stamps beef prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter, and canner, according to the amount of its fat. See also beefbeef,
flesh of cattle prepared for food. It has become one of the chief products of the meatpacking industry and is sold either chilled, frozen, or cured. The leading beef consumers, as well as exporters, are the U.S., the European Union, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia.
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; muttonmutton,
flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). Mutton is deep red with firm, white fat. In Middle Eastern countries it is a staple meat, but in the West, with the exception of Great Britain, Australia, and New
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; sausagesausage,
food consisting of finely chopped meat mixed with seasonings and, often, other ingredients, all encased in a thin membrane. Although sausages were made by the ancient Greeks and Romans, they were usually plain and unspiced; in the Middle Ages people began to use the
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See A. Levie, The Meat Handbook (4th ed. 1984); D. Price, Beef, Production, Science and Economics, Application, and Reality (1985); J. Ubaldi and E. Grossman, Jack Ubaldi's Meat Book (1987).

References in periodicals archive ?
As typical of mature industries, meatpackers compete by reducing costs through technical change, increasing in size and scope through acquisition or vertical coordination and by expanding into developing international markets.
Coleman's office declined to provide comment on his view regarding meatpackers being able to own and raise livestock--a virtually certain recipe for the perpetuation of monoculture animal husbandry at its worst.
Cargill, the Minneapolis agricultural product firm, moved its Excel meatpacker into a position of prominence.
Wilson brand name it acquired after taking on meatpacker IBP Inc.
and meatpacker Buckhead Beef to handle its food supply needs here, had its bottom line negatively impacted by weaker-than-expected consumer demand and low retail prices.
Why should we read Cheri Register's life story, one more memoir in the glut flooding the market, one penned by the daughter of a meatpacker from Albert Lea, Minnesota?
She was dropped from 1960s show Double Your Money and ended up working as a meatpacker in a supermarket and later committed suicide.
Daniel James's oral history of Dona Mari Roldan, an Argentine meatpacker, labor activist and Peronist, is in many ways the high point of the book.
OSHA proposed fining one large meatpacker a total of $5.
He was formerly chief executive of meatpacker, Marfrig Global Foods SA.
As more fully discussed below, at least one major meatpacker publicly acknowledged that it had opted for an indirect form of vertical integration--formula-priced contracts--that accords meatpackers leverage over the live cattle supply chain comparable to that of ownership of firms that feed cattle but without having to actually acquire those firms.