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wholesale business of buying and slaughtering animals and then processing and distributing their carcasses to retailers. The livestock industry is among the largest in the world. In the United States, the plains of the Midwest and Southwest provided good conditions for inexpensively breeding livestock, which was then transported to centrally located packing centers, such as Chicago and Cincinnati, and marketed in the densely populated eastern states. Chicago's Union Stock Yards (1865) was the nation's largest livestock and packing center until the mid-20th cent. It was closed in 1971, because it was unable to compete with newer, more modern facilities. Modern meatpacking dates from the introduction of refrigerated railway cars. In 1869, George Hammond, a meatpacker in Detroit, shipped frozen beef to Boston in a car chilled with ice from the Great Lakes. By 1880 mechanical refrigeration was being used. The introduction of storage and distribution warehouses made possible the rapid and efficient marketing of meat. The grain belt and the high plains of the Midwest are still distribution centers for livestock products in the United States.

Meatpacking byproducts include hides for leather; edible fats; inedible fats for soap; bones for buttons; blood meal for fertilizer; hair for brushes; intestines for sausage casing; as well as gelatin, glue, and glycerin. Byproduct pharmaceuticals include pepsin, testosterone, liver extract, thyroxine, epinephrine, albumin, insulin, thromboplastin, bilirubin, and ACTH.

Federal legislation requires humane slaughtering methods and examination for disease for livestock killed for export or interstate trade. The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 extended inspections to intrastate trade. A new inspection system requiring scientific tests for bacteria was put in place in 1996. The laws are administered by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA's grading service stamps beef prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter, and canner, according to the amount of its fat. See also beefbeef,
flesh of cattle prepared for food. It has become one of the chief products of the meatpacking industry and is sold either chilled, frozen, or cured. The leading beef consumers, as well as exporters, are the U.S., the European Union, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia.
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; muttonmutton,
flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). Mutton is deep red with firm, white fat. In Middle Eastern countries it is a staple meat, but in the West, with the exception of Great Britain, Australia, and New
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; sausagesausage,
food consisting of finely chopped meat mixed with seasonings and, often, other ingredients, all encased in a thin membrane. Although sausages were made by the ancient Greeks and Romans, they were usually plain and unspiced; in the Middle Ages people began to use the
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See A. Levie, The Meat Handbook (4th ed. 1984); D. Price, Beef, Production, Science and Economics, Application, and Reality (1985); J. Ubaldi and E. Grossman, Jack Ubaldi's Meat Book (1987).

References in periodicals archive ?
The building's penthouse contains three terraces and floor-to-ceiling windows that offer views of the Meatpacking District, a 20-block, 24-hour Manhattan destination with upscale offices and trendy restaurants, nightlife, retail, hotels and cultural attractions including the High Line and the new Whitney Museum.
By day, Manhattan's Meatpacking District is populated by laborers and delivery trucks, but at night, the neighborhood becomes the playground of stylish club-goers, musicians, dancers, prostitutes, and crews shooting films and fashion spreads.
And now, the Meatpacking District Improvement Association has decided to wipe away the stones in a non-profit 500,000-dollar overhaul.
Richard Skulnik, a broker at Ripco Real Estate who specializes in properties in the Meatpacking District, said mainstream retailers recognize they need to be near the High Line.
Tom Harkin, a Democrat and the new chairman of the agriculture committee, contend that the large meatpacking companies use their overwhelming buying power to obtain livestock long before they are sent to packing plants for slaughter.
In 1904, a weekly publication called Appeal to Reason sent Upton Sinclair to investigate Chicago's meatpacking plants.
But The Jungle owed its success less to its social criticism than to its graphic scenes of the huge slaughterhouses and meatpacking plants in Chicago.
Novelist/political commentator Upton Sinclair may best be known for his flaming critiques of the Chicago meatpacking industry in "The Jungle"; but he's equally notorious in California for his harsh critiques of Southern California's culture and excesses.
The book details an overwhelming matrix of problems stemming from the food industry: from supermarkets bullying small-food producers, to pollution from airborne feces particulates, to the horrors of the meatpacking industry.
They include mining, meatpacking, excavation and, with few exceptions, any work that involves driving.
The paper will begin by tracing the historical development of the meatpacking industry, the regulatory response to the industry, and finally discuss the literature and current consolidation within the industry.
Hussein Sadruddin, the overworked detention project coordinator for the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights, can speak to any number of problems that need addressing: an old meatpacking plant converted into a giant human cage; local police and INS trolling for arrests at mosques and small businesses; funders that shy away from giving money to help "criminal aliens.