The main ultimate limitation in terms of total impulse capability for Hall-effect thrusters is related to the mechanical erosion
by ion bombardment of the ceramic discharge channel.
Due to the melting of ground and rim material, and through mechanical erosion
, the mass of lava carved an ever-deeper and broader bed to form canyons.
This drives ice erosion, which can be classified into three categories: (i) thermal erosion, (ii) thermo-mechanical erosion and (iii) mechanical erosion.
Mechanical erosion is the most important ice erosion process in the Baltic Sea.
is due to each bullet wiping away a slight amount of steel, or breaking off tiny pieces of an eroded bore.
Green described the most common failure modes in coreless refractory linings: hot-face erosion, mechanical erosion
, buildup, bridging, finning, spalling and saturation.
A significant number of the samples have proven visually positive with pyrope garnet, picroilmenite, chrome spinel and many of the grains show little sign of mechanical erosion
Because of chemical and mechanical erosion
is a need to