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the examination of the anterior mediastinum for the purpose of biopsy.
Mediastinoscopy is performed in the operating room under anesthesia. The instrument used in the operation, called the mediastinoscope, is a hollow tube, 15 cm long with a longitudinal slit for manipulation of accessory instruments. The mediastinoscope is introduced into the anterior mediastinum through a transverse incision over the manubrium of the sternum.
Mediastinoscopy makes it possible to examine, puncture, and take pieces of tissue or lymph nodes for histological examination. The anterior surface of the trachea, the anterior and lateral surfaces of the main bronchi, and the connective tissue and lymph nodes surrounding them are also accessible to mediastinoscopy.