Wherever there was open military and/or religious opposition to the colonial government in the 1860s and 1870s meeting houses were built as symbols of political unity in opposition - many built in Taranaki and Waikato were also burned to the ground by government troops because of this.
During the 1870s and 1880s meeting houses became politically and ritually central within Ringatu communities in the eastern and central North Island where they were built as venues for Ringatu Church services held to mark the 12th day of each month and the first of January each year.
Large carved meeting houses were, therefore, hybrid structures built during a period of rapid political change.
Ngati Tarawhai carvers had been widely employed during the 1860s and 1870s to produce carvings for the large meeting houses built by tribes aligned with the King Movement, and, with the beginnings of the tourist industry in Rotorua in the 1880s, these men had turned their hands toward meeting the demands of a commodity market.
Examples of this reductionism are Neich's analyses of the social implications of the meanings of mua or muri, and tapu and noa, his acceptance of Salmond's similarly semantic analyses of Maori society, and a Rongowhakaata meeting house in which the expected symbolic oppositions are spectacularly 'not operative' (pp.
At the 1994 Easter re-opening of Rongokarae I was confronted by a whole meeting house full inside and out with these outrageous forms and colours, including European fruit trees being planted and horses being raced and rafters painted like tukutuku weavings, all in pea-greens, yellows, and mauves which were so far from the 'traditional' red, black and white that young Tuhoe had at first found it all to be simply 'yuck'.
This first meeting house was rebuilt in the 1850s, further back from the road -no doubt Bull Street was getting considerably noisier by then -and then again in the early 1930s.
So concerned were the Friends about losing their old meeting house that the biggest Quaker of them all -George Cadbury -got involved in the argument.
A brass plaque in the entrance hall to the current meeting house commemorates and lists the Friends rudely awoken and moved at this time.
Grant Puts Museum over 50 Percent Mark for Restoration of the African Meeting House
The African Meeting House was the nexus of black abolitionist communities in the Northeast.
The Wal-Mart Foundation donation helps the Museum surpass the 50 percent mark of the $8 million of funding needed to complete the African Meeting House restoration effort.