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a branch of linguistics that studies the aggregate of the ethnic, social, historical, and geographic factors that are inseparably linked to the development of language.

The distinction between external and internal linguistics originated with the Swiss linguist F. de Saussure, one of the founders of structural linguistics. He recognized that the culture, history, and customs of a people, the relationships between language and the social institutions (school, church, and so on), the geographic distribution of languages, and linguistic contacts can influence the development of language; however, he considered all this alien to the “organism of language”—to its system. He introduced the contrast of language and speech and of synchrony and diachrony. Language is independent of speech; consequently, its system does not depend on extralinguistic factors. On the other hand, the origin of a particular linguistic element that can be associated with some external factor is not essential for the study of the contemporary state of a language or a synchronic analysis of its system; only the relationships obtaining between the elements in a system are important.

Modern Soviet linguistics does not deny the existence of external and internal aspects of language. The interaction of external and internal linguistic factors is particularly evident during periods of intensive linguistic contacts and in cases of bilingualism and multilingualism.


Saussure, F. de. Kurs obshchei lingvistiki. Moscow-Leningrad, 1933. (Translated from French.)
Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. “Nekotorye obshchie zamechaniia o iazykovedenii i iazyke.” Izbrannye trudy po obshchemu iazykoznaniiu, vol. 1. Moscow, 1963.
Budagov, R. A. Iz istorii iazykoznaniia (Sossiur i sossiureanstvo). Moscow, 1954.
Akhmanova, O. S., and V. Z. Panfilov. “Ekstralingyisticheskie i vnutrilingvisticheskie faktory v funktsionirovanii i razvitii iazyka.” Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1963, no. 4.


References in periodicals archive ?
As a premise, we can say that a lie does partake in the problem of knowledge but only when we make it step out of language (conceivably only for examination purposes) and look at it from a detached, metalinguistic standpoint with a semiotic/meta-semiotic focus.
And whatever it is that we understand when reading a novel or believing a myth, whatever we pretend at the time we recognize that the characters do not exist, our knowledge and pretence are not metalinguistic in kind.
This capacity, like other metalinguistic abilities, is associated with the ability to monitor reading comprehension [17].
This is an indication of increased metalinguistic awareness of blind learners of English.
From a metalinguistic perspective, as its own designation indicates, there exists an intrinsic relation with language, thus, this respect for the rights and reputation of others will include freedom from verbal and written discrimination, racist speech, be it verbal or written.
This deeper level of understanding resulted in the development of metalinguistic knowledge regarding language cues as the parents and their children compared the characteristics of each respective language, encountered difficult areas in the text, and engaged with one another in discussions.
Rethinking metalinguistic awareness: representing and accessing knowledge about what count as a word.
This paper seeks to frame the issue that we are considering up to this point: the didactic treatment given, in studies of learning and metalinguistic development, to the double facet of language practices mentioned by Rodrigues (2005): the enunciative one and the textual one.
Ballet is focused on the poetic function lato sensu--focusing on the message "for its sake" and, eventually, on the metalinguistic one centred on the choreographic code.
The authors analyze the metalinguistic assumptions of these early accounts and also examine in depth a key set of films made by the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) between 1910 and 1920.
In a similar vein, Chapter 4 shares concerns with the previous chapter, focusing on metalinguistic discourse about English on Flickr.
Hobbs); "Optimal interpretation for rhetorical relations" (Henk Zeevat); "Modeling discourse relations by topics and implicatures: The elaboration default" (Ekatarina Jasinskaja); "The role of logical and generic document structure in relational discourse analysis" (Maja Barenfanger, Harald Lungen, Mirco Hilbert, and Henning Lobin); "Obligatory presupposition in discourse" (Pascal Amsili and Claire Beyssade); "Conventionalized speech act formulae: From corpus findings to formalization" (Ann Copesake and Marina Terkourafi); "Constraints on metalinguistic anaphora" (Philippe De Brabanter); and "Appositive Relative Clauses and their prosodic realization in spoken discourse: A corpus study of phonetic aspects in British English" (Cyril Auran and Rudy Loock).