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a branch of linguistics that studies the aggregate of the ethnic, social, historical, and geographic factors that are inseparably linked to the development of language.

The distinction between external and internal linguistics originated with the Swiss linguist F. de Saussure, one of the founders of structural linguistics. He recognized that the culture, history, and customs of a people, the relationships between language and the social institutions (school, church, and so on), the geographic distribution of languages, and linguistic contacts can influence the development of language; however, he considered all this alien to the “organism of language”—to its system. He introduced the contrast of language and speech and of synchrony and diachrony. Language is independent of speech; consequently, its system does not depend on extralinguistic factors. On the other hand, the origin of a particular linguistic element that can be associated with some external factor is not essential for the study of the contemporary state of a language or a synchronic analysis of its system; only the relationships obtaining between the elements in a system are important.

Modern Soviet linguistics does not deny the existence of external and internal aspects of language. The interaction of external and internal linguistic factors is particularly evident during periods of intensive linguistic contacts and in cases of bilingualism and multilingualism.


Saussure, F. de. Kurs obshchei lingvistiki. Moscow-Leningrad, 1933. (Translated from French.)
Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. “Nekotorye obshchie zamechaniia o iazykovedenii i iazyke.” Izbrannye trudy po obshchemu iazykoznaniiu, vol. 1. Moscow, 1963.
Budagov, R. A. Iz istorii iazykoznaniia (Sossiur i sossiureanstvo). Moscow, 1954.
Akhmanova, O. S., and V. Z. Panfilov. “Ekstralingyisticheskie i vnutrilingvisticheskie faktory v funktsionirovanii i razvitii iazyka.” Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1963, no. 4.


References in periodicals archive ?
Talk about writing: Metalinguistic awareness in beginning writers.
Ballet is focused on the poetic function lato sensu--focusing on the message "for its sake" and, eventually, on the metalinguistic one centred on the choreographic code.
Producing bilinguals through immersion education: Development of metalinguistic awareness.
He certainly has a way of seeing and narrating the world around him that turns even the most common situations into hilarious, exceptional stories, but that doesn't mean that he will turn his back to a good pun, wordplay, or any other metalinguistic tool that will turn a simple narration into a killer joke.
On the other hand, experts were seen as those interpreters with enhanced metalinguistic abilities (Ehrensberger-Dow & Perrin, 2009), which could potentially help create more cohesive texts.
According to de la Fuente [7], producing lexically focused output can create some of the postulated functions of output in output hypothesis--noticing, hypothesis testing, metalinguistic, and fluency enhancement.
Many students could represent metalinguistic concepts-for example, syllabification, slow articulation-in drawings.
Crisis itself, as a notion, intrigues the artist (the word came up in the exhibition wall text), and that first vitrine evoked not only failed and shuttered businesses but also, on a metalinguistic level, lack of content, meaning, and narrative--empty containers as pure signifiers, albeit in crisis.
As Myhill (2000) noted, most second-language teachers are neither grammarians nor linguists, and their metalinguistic knowledge is sometimes partial or tentative.
1993), which state that children must first develop phonological abilities and language proficiency in their first language, before obtaining the metalinguistic capacity to process phonology cross-lingually.
In the Grammar for Writing study carried out by the University of Exeter, one of our research questions was: What I is the impact of grammar teaching on pupils' metalinguistic understanding?
Barber's approach also considers "critical creative metalinguistic consciousness" such as proverbs and epithets.