meteorological satellite


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meteorological satellite:

see satellite, artificialsatellite, artificial,
object constructed by humans and placed in orbit around the earth or other celestial body (see also space probe). The satellite is lifted from the earth's surface by a rocket and, once placed in orbit, maintains its motion without further rocket propulsion.
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; weather satelliteweather satellite,
artificial satellite used to gather data on a global basis for improvement of weather forecasting. Information includes cloud cover, storm location, temperature, and heat balance in the earth's atmosphere.
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Meteorological Satellite

 

(weather satellite), an artificial earth satellite designed to provide continuous observation of the distribution of the cloud cover and the earth’s radiation to obtain meteorological data for weather forecasts. Among the meteorological satellites are the Soviet Meteor space system, some satellites of the Cosmos series (for example, Cosmos 122, 144, 156, 184, and 206), and the American Tiros and Nimbus.

A meteorological satellite provides for simultaneous measurement of the radiation fluxes in various parts of the spectrum and photography of the cloud cover by visible and infrared rays. The measurement is performed by television cameras for day and night viewing; by infrared instruments, which measure the temperature of the earth’s surface and the clouds; and by actinometric instruments, which measure the reflected and radiated thermal energy of the earth and the atmosphere. The meteorological data are recorded in the memory of computers on board the satellite and are subsequently transmitted to ground stations. To provide the geographic referencing of the meteorological data, the satellite has functional systems that orient it continuously and accurately toward the earth and in the direction of the flight path and also synchronize all recording and memory devices. The power for on-board equipment comes from solar batteries, which have an independent system of orientation toward the sun, and from chemical batteries with the necessary automatic controls. The satellites also have radio telemetry systems and systems for making accurate measurements of orbital parameters. Present-day satellites orbit at altitudes of 400–1,500 km, thus providing observation zones up to 1,000 km wide.

The development of a Soviet meteorological satellite began as part of the program to create the Cosmos series of satellites. During the first stage of development, electrical equipment for stabilizing the satellite and orienting its housing toward the center of the earth was developed and tested using satellites of the Cosmos 23 type. A set of instruments for meteorological observations that included television, actinometric, and infrared de-vices, together with a system that ensured the functioning of the satellite in orbit for many months, was tested on Cosmos 122. Cosmos 144 and Cosmos 156, together with ground stations, formed the Meteor experimental space meteorological system. In only one revolution around the earth, the satellite provides information on the cloud cover over a territory of about 8 percent of the globe and data on radiation fluxes for about 20 percent of the globe. The orbits of satellites are arranged relative to one another in such a way that they produce observations of the weather over each region of the globe every six hours. Thus, the development of atmospheric processes in various regions of the earth may be traced.

G. A. NAZAROV

meteorological satellite

[‚med·ē·ə·rə′läj·ə·kəl ′sad·əl‚īt]
(aerospace engineering)
Earth-orbiting spacecraft carrying a variety of instruments for measuring visible and invisible radiations from the earth and its atmosphere.
References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, infrared sounding data collected by the Special Sensor-H (SSH) instrument flown on four Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites appear to have been lost.
Harris' deep knowledge of this program was gained through over 40 years of experience delivering engineering and support for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program," said John Heller, president, Harris IT Services.
Sig was director of the Meteorological Satellite Laboratory for a decade, during which time there was substantial growth and evolution in the organization.
Dieter Klaes, programme scientist at EUMETSAT, Europes organisation for the exploitation of meteorological satellites, said: "The MetOp satellites have significantly improved numerical weather prediction.
Macauley, the sponsors of studies focused on determining the value of satellite data are typically national and international meteorological satellite organizations themselves.
Harris said, that as a part of the study, it will analyse the existing Defence Meteorological Satellite Programme (DMSP) space and ground assets and create plans to show how each can evolve into the Weather Satellite Follow-on (WSF) to meet mission needs and lower life cycle costs.
The ESA adds that the contract, worth Euro 135 million, will be covered by EUMETSAT, the European meteorological satellite organisation, which will also be responsible for the launch and exploitation of MSG-4.
The new analysis, compiled by Pierantonio Cinzano, Fabio Falchi (both at the University of Padua), and Chris Elvidge (National Geophysical Data Center), uses images of Earth at night that were collected by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft in 1996 and 1997.
This image, taken by the NOAA-11 meteorological satellite on Feb.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program have been making observations with low-light sensors for 40 years.
Chris Elvidge and his colleagues at the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) in Boulder, Colorado, are developing maps that will offer greater resolution (to about 0.

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