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The condition of having an abnormally small head, with a circumference less than two standard deviations below the mean.



substantial reduction in skull and brain size in the presence of normal dimensions of other parts of the body. Microcephaly is accompanied by mental deficiency, from mild imbecility to idiocy. The causes of microcephaly are viral diseases suffered by the mother during the first three months of pregnancy, toxoplasmosis, and, sometimes, intrauterine meningoencephalitis of the fetus. The prognosis is unfavorable.

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According to CBS News, the team then made similar comparisons between endocasts of skulls of 10 microcephalic humans, 79 unaffected humans, 17 individuals of the human ancestor Homo erectus, 4 individuals from the human ancestor Australopithecus, and the H.
erectus but do fall within the range for microcephalic humans, so Holloway concludes that the fossil could have suffered from microcephaly and is not necessarily a separate species.
Microcephalics were perceived as examples of degeneration and atavism, embodiments of "man's" simian origins.