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Earlier software from Micrografx that allowed Windows programs to be converted to OS/2 with minimal modification. See also mirror site.


(pop culture)

The now-popular idea that vampires cast no reflection in a mirror (and often have an intense aversion to them) seems to have first been put forward in Bram Stoker‘s novel, Dracula. Soon after his arrival at Castle Dracula, Jonathan Harker observed that the building was devoid of mirrors. When Dracula silently came into Harker’s room while he was shaving, Harker noticed that Dracula, who was standing behind him, did not appear in the shaving mirror as he should have. Dracula complained that mirrors were objects of human vanity, and, seizing the shaving mirror, he broke it.

When the novel was brought to the stage and the episode in Castle Dracula deleted, the incident of the mirror was transformed into a confrontation between Dracula and Dr. Abraham Van Helsing. The mirror incident does not seem to have any precedent in either vampire folklore or the earlier vampire short stories and dramas, although Stoker seemed to have been aware of folklore about mirrors. Mirrors were seen as somehow revealing a person’s spiritual double, the soul. In seeing themselves revealed in a mirror, individuals found confirmation that there was a soul and that hence life went on. They also found in the reflection a new source of anxiety, as the mirror could be used to affect the soul negatively.

The notion that the image in the mirror was somehow the soul was the source of the idea that breaking a mirror brought seven years’ bad luck. Breaking the mirror also damaged the soul.

Thus, one could speculate that the vampire had no soul, had nothing to reflect in the mirror. The mirror forced the vampire to confront the nature of his/her existence as the undead, neither living nor dead. On occasion, in both vampire fiction and the cinema, the idea of nonreflection in mirrors has been extended to film, that is, the vampire would not appear in photographs if developed.

In her popular reinterpretation of the vampire myth, Anne Rice dropped Stoker’s mirror convention. She argued in part that although vampires have certain “supernatural” attributes, they existed in the same physical universe as mortals and generally had to conform to the same physical laws, including those of optics. Hence, in Interview with the Vampire and Vampire Lestat, Louis and Lestat de Lioncourt, respectively, saw themselves in a mirror and experienced a moment of self-revelation about their new vampire image. (Of course, Rice’s vampires didn’t follow all physical laws since they had the ability to fly.)

During the 1990s, vampire writers and movies have moved back and forth on the problem of mirrors, and the related problem of capturing the image of the vampire on film, television, or with the new digital cameras. Some, for example the vampires of “The Twilight Series” and the books of L. A. Banks can see and be seen in mirrors. Meanwhile, most still cannot, including those of television series such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Being Human, and the popular books of Charlaine Harris and Laurell K. Hamilton.


Goldberg, Benjamin. The Mirror and Man. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1985. 260 pp.
Ramsland, Katherine. The Vampire Companion. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993. 507 pp.

The Miss Lucy Westenra Society of the Undead see: Vampire Fandom: United States

References in classic literature ?
The cupboards ran all around the sides of the dressing-room, and had elaborately carved doors with gold numbers on the outside and jeweled-framed mirrors on the inside of them.
An instant later he passed at the second window and the many mirrors repainted in successive frames the same eagle profile and marching figure.
Hester looked by way of humouring the child; and she saw that, owing to the peculiar effect of this convex mirror, the scarlet letter was represented in exaggerated and gigantic proportions, so as to be greatly the most prominent feature of her appearance.
I noticed that there was no mirror in the whole apartment.
The Emperor took off all his clothes, and the impostors placed themselves before him as if they were putting on each part of his new clothes which was ready, and the Emperor turned and bent himself in front of the mirror.
As these folks came out by twos and threes upon the open, they found little knots of people talking excitedly and peering at the spinning mirror over the sand pits, and the new-comers were, no doubt, soon infected by the excitement of the oc- casion.
I remembered what I had seen in the mirror, and hastened to pursue the button.
The fair widow knew, of old, that Colonel Killigrew's compliments were not always measured by sober truth; so she started up and ran to the mirror, still dreading that the ugly visage of an old woman would meet her gaze.
the "Evening Mirror," the "Broadway journal," and "Godey's Lady's Book" in New York.
through a door that was always open, and a looped- back yellow damask portiere) the unexpected vista of a bedroom with a huge low bed upholstered like a sofa, and a toilet-table with frivolous lace flounces and a gilt-framed mirror.
The mirror fell with a horrid clatter: the toilet-table followed it with a worse: the thief had gone as he had come ere my toes halted aching amid the debris.
Moliere set to work tracing out lines on the mirror, with a piece of Spanish chalk, following in all the make of my arms and my shoulders, all the while expounding this maxim, which I thought admirable: 'It is advisable that a dress should not incommode its wearer.