p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase
mediates bid cleavage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and caspase-3 activation during apoptosis induced by singlet oxygen but not by hydrogen peroxide.
Radiation-induced release of transforming growth factor a activates the epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase
pathway in carcinoma cells, leading to increased proliferation and protection from radiation-induced cell death.
Rapid, sequential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases
and transcription factors precedes proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in spleens of mice exposed to the trichothecene vomitoxin.
Bax translocates to mitochondria of heart cells during simulated ischaemia: involvement of AMP-activated and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases
Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases
in ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning.
The mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPKs) are serine-threonine kinases that share common structural features as well as homologous pathways of activation.
HIV-1 gp120 and chemokine activation of pyk2 and mitogen-activated protein kinases
in primary macrophages mediated by calcium-dependent, pertussis toxin-insensitive chemokine receptor signaling.
Further, the intracellular mechanisms mediating Homspera activity following binding on cell surfaces have also been implicated in mechanisms governing gene expression and function, including those reported to be perturbed in many cancers and inflammatory states, including: the proteins regulating the transcription factor NF-kB, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukins, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPKs) and related kinases and phosphatases as well as associated functions such as receptor internalization, b-arrestin binding, receptor recycling and ubiquitination of internalized proteins.
Since the mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK) and p38 MAPKs ([p38.
Measured responses included activation of ERK and JNK, mitogen-activated protein kinases
involved in cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death); activation of caspases 8 and 9, enzymes that also are involved in apoptosis; and release of prolactin, a hormone that helps regulate hundreds of biological functions, including metabolism, reproduction, and lactation.
Signaling pathways involved in the assembly, disassembly, and maintenance of TJ are controlled by a number of signaling molecules, such as protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases
, myosin light chain kinase, and Rho GTPases.
Cell cycle regulation of p70S6 kinase and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases
in Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts.