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in linguistics, a conceptual category expressing the purposefulness of speech, the relationship of a speaker to the content of his utterance, and the relationship of the content of the utterance to reality.

Modality may signify affirmation, command, desire, permission, truth, and unreality. It is expressed by various grammatical and lexical means: modal verbs (“may,” “should”; German sollen, konnen, wollen), other modal words (“perhaps,” “likely”), and intonational means. Different languages express the various meanings of modality in different ways. For example, English expresses the modality of unreality by means of a special conjugation, the subjunctive II (“If you had come in time, we would have been able to catch the train”). In Yagnobi, the forms of the present-future tense can have the modal nuances of indirect command, permission, invitation to action, and intention of doing something.



the mode of existence of some object or the mode of duration of some phenomenon (ontological modality) or the way of understanding or drawing conclusions about an object, phenomenon, or event (epistemological or logical modality).

The concept of modality, which goes back to Aristotle, was later used in classical philosophical systems. The words (terms) expressing different modal concepts are the object of linguistic study. The distinction between propositions according to modality, elaborated in classical logic by the students and commentators of Aristotle (such as Theophrastus and Eudemus of Rhodes), was further defined by the medieval Scholastics.

In modern logic and philosophy, I. Kant’s division of propositions into assertoric (judgments about reality), apodictic (judgments of necessity), and problematic (judgments of possibility) has become traditional. The generally accepted derivation of the proposition “A occurs” from “A is necessary” and the proposition “A is possible” from “A occurs” has become the foundation of work on modality in contemporary formal (mathematical) logic. Modalities pertaining to propositions or predicates are known as alethic, while modalities pertaining to words expressing actions and acts are called deontic.

Modalities are further divided into “absolute” and “relative,” according to the usual meaning of these terms. In contemporary modal logic and logical semantics, modality is also sometimes understood to include the concepts “true” and “false,” as well as “provable,” “unprovable,” and “refutable.”


References in periodicals archive ?
They allow alternative, unconventional healing modalities and conventional western medicine to complement one another for the benefit of the patient.
Knowledge of intuitive and non-intuitive areas, as well as preferred modalities, can lead students to a greater understanding of themselves and each other.
In contrast, their students evidenced a wide range of perceptual preferences that extended from extremely low- to extremely-high auditory, visual, tactile, or kinesthetic modalities, meaning that some learned well by listening or reading, whereas others could not at all, but did perform well through when learning with hands-on materials or being involved in real-life experiential activities.
As scientific research demonstrates the efficacy of more and more therapies and treatment modalities in treating addiction, an increasing number of treatment professionals will begin offering these as part of the standard fare.
Developmental blocks, defined as the inability to experience a particular event or circumstance in one of the four modalities, may be experienced atone or several levels with regard to specific situations or issues (Myers, 1998).
At the 6-month follow-up, patients who had used all three modalities had lost 17% of their initial body weight, compared with 5% weight loss among patients in the medication group and 10% weight loss among those in the drug-plus-behavioral therapy group.
hearing the words "tree" and "leaf"), or through some combination of modalities (e.
Key Concepts: Alternative Medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)/Unconventional, Alternative, or Complementary Therapies/Unorthodox Modalities
The advantage of these self-dialyzing modalities is that the patient does not have to attend three weekly sessions at a dialysis facility.
While four rehabilitation intervention structures and treatment modalities are used with approximately two-thirds of the clients, six of the ten items are provided to substantially smaller proportions of clients (see Table 2).
These advances have led to new two-, three-, and multidimensional imaging modalities that have become important clinical tools in diagnostic radiology.
5, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- The term hybrid imaging essentially refers to hardware-based image fusion where two different imaging modalities are combined in a single equipment.