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in linguistics, a conceptual category expressing the purposefulness of speech, the relationship of a speaker to the content of his utterance, and the relationship of the content of the utterance to reality.

Modality may signify affirmation, command, desire, permission, truth, and unreality. It is expressed by various grammatical and lexical means: modal verbs (“may,” “should”; German sollen, konnen, wollen), other modal words (“perhaps,” “likely”), and intonational means. Different languages express the various meanings of modality in different ways. For example, English expresses the modality of unreality by means of a special conjugation, the subjunctive II (“If you had come in time, we would have been able to catch the train”). In Yagnobi, the forms of the present-future tense can have the modal nuances of indirect command, permission, invitation to action, and intention of doing something.



the mode of existence of some object or the mode of duration of some phenomenon (ontological modality) or the way of understanding or drawing conclusions about an object, phenomenon, or event (epistemological or logical modality).

The concept of modality, which goes back to Aristotle, was later used in classical philosophical systems. The words (terms) expressing different modal concepts are the object of linguistic study. The distinction between propositions according to modality, elaborated in classical logic by the students and commentators of Aristotle (such as Theophrastus and Eudemus of Rhodes), was further defined by the medieval Scholastics.

In modern logic and philosophy, I. Kant’s division of propositions into assertoric (judgments about reality), apodictic (judgments of necessity), and problematic (judgments of possibility) has become traditional. The generally accepted derivation of the proposition “A occurs” from “A is necessary” and the proposition “A is possible” from “A occurs” has become the foundation of work on modality in contemporary formal (mathematical) logic. Modalities pertaining to propositions or predicates are known as alethic, while modalities pertaining to words expressing actions and acts are called deontic.

Modalities are further divided into “absolute” and “relative,” according to the usual meaning of these terms. In contemporary modal logic and logical semantics, modality is also sometimes understood to include the concepts “true” and “false,” as well as “provable,” “unprovable,” and “refutable.”


References in periodicals archive ?
Home modalities offer patients with ESRD an alternative to in-center HD.
DISCUSSION: The present study evaluates the clinical profile and efficacy of different modalities in the improvement of hyper-pigmentary disorders and tanned sun exposed skin.
That's why the use of these modalities, in addition to the other benefits that I mentioned earlier, can lower the cost of higher education, because those savings can be passed on to students.
The 72-item EIT developed for children presents four different emotions (happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) in three different modalities (auditory, visual, and AV), as follows.
The analysis revealed that whereas SHALL is distributed across all kinds of modality, WILL has a limited variety: many cases are dynamic, which is directly derived from its original lexical meaning, no cases of deontic are found, and fewer cases of epistemic modality are recorded, which is more subjective and developed later than dynamic and deontic modalities.
Although a teacher may be able to process a situation in multiple modalities, he or she is likely to return to preferred modalities at different points in the consultation process.
In other words, if there are metastatic lesions or an active tumor in the treatment area, a different care plan must be created because most of the modalities increase circulation and the therapist wants to avoid feeding an active cancer.
The ten Likert-type items attitude survey and demographics sheet were constructed from a similar research project on modality, modified to fit the modalities of this particular lesson.
Our Health At Risk is must reading for thinkers who cherish their good health and wish to guard it with wise choices from a far-ranging host of natural healing modalities rather than succumbing to the one system--one way medical myth.
In the same way, when used at the right time and place, all modalities have benefit and none are mutually exclusive (i.
The purposeful use and appropriate selection of modalities and facilitation techniques is essential to successful outcomes for TR interventions.
Music instruction also is considered beneficial for all students--regardless of their preferred modalities or areas of intuitiveness.