Terzaghi [42] showed that the modulus of subgrade reaction (k) was not an intrinsic physical parameter of the soil, but inversely proportional to foundation width.

Here, they assumed a constant value for modulus of subgrade reaction and obtained the moments and deflections along the length of the piles.

The modulus of subgrade reaction approach using finite difference technique is used and the same was coded in MATLAB for the analysis.

The suggested method implements p-multiplier factors in combination with the horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction.

The most popular model in determining the modulus of subgrade reaction (k) is Winkler model.

Modulus of subgrade reaction values was calculated with the help of Figure 6 by determining the inclinations of loading-settlement curves.

It was seen that lime stabilization or reinforcement with geosynthetics solely did not meet the requirement of modulus of subgrade reaction in this study.

Consequently, runway design requirements and pavement evaluation are largely affected by potential deflection, which primarily relates to California bearing ratio (CBR) or modulus of subgrade reaction of soil subgrade of the runway (Ashford, Wright 1992; Horonjeff, McKelvey 1994).

s] is the modulus of subgrade reaction of the runway pavement, and p is the equivalent static contact pressure exerted by landing gear wheels on the runway pavement surface, the following general expression derived by D.

j] depend on the fatigue law and are related to actual and standard axle load, bending strength of concrete and coefficient [beta], which in turn depends on thickness of a concrete slab h, modulus of subgrade reaction k and other pavement parameters.

The effect of the modulus of subgrade reaction is less significant, however greater traffic aggressiveness was noticed for lower slab support.

At the AASHO Road Test, the elastic

modulus of subgrade reactions k gross (obtained with 30-in[760-mm-] diameter plate) in units of pounds per cubic inch (pci) is taken to be an average 60 pci (16 kPa/mm).