Migalj (1969) found that the acetolyzed pollen grains of dioecious strains tended to have a diameter averaging about 33 pm, while the grains of monoecious
strains were smaller, with a diameter averaging about 27 pm; and the pollen of dioecious plants was also more uniform, while that of monoecious
plants were more variable in size and in number of pores.
Researchers fear potential cross-pollination between monoecious
and dioecious hydrilla in areas where both biotypes grow together.
THC content has proven to be more easily reduced in monoecious
varieties, which are inbred, than in dioecious varieties, which are outbred.
According to Coe's report (Coe 1943), cited by Heard (1975), hermaphroditic conditions in pelecypods were divided into four categories, according to the sequence of reproductive events: (1) functional hermaphroditism (eggs and sperm produced simultaneously), which can be subdivided into two groups: (i) normal (typically in monoecious
species) and (ii) accidental or development (typically in dioecious species): (2) consecutive sexuality (single sex-reversal, usually protandrous), (3) rhythmical sexuality (>1 sex-reversal, usually protandrous); and (4) alternative sexuality (adults function seasonally as separate sexes).
Southern populations tend to represent the dioecious biotype originally introduced into Florida; northern populations tend to be a monoecious
biotype from a separate introduction in the Potomac River near Washington, D.
Some biotypes are monoecious
(each plant has both male and female flowers) and others are dioecious (each plant bears only male or female flowers).
Effects of pollen vector and plant geometry on floral sex ratio in monoecious
It is a monoecious
fruit tree producing male and female flowers, its fruit is the largest tree-borne in the world in the Moraceae family.
Protogyny and protandry are the underlying mechanisms favouring allogamy in monoecious
(bisexual) meaning the plant has male and female reproductive organs.
They are not host-alternating, and are mostly monoecious
1 and 2): (1) Gross Inflorescence Structure (unispicate, 0; occasionally unispicate, 1; multispicate, 2; highly compound, 3); (2) Degree of Utricle Fusion (closed, 0; open, 1); (3) Spikelet Sexuality (one-flowered pistillate, 0; bisexual, but monoecious
, 1; perfect, 2); (4) Stigma Number (three, 0; two, 1); (5) Cladoprophylls (present, 0; absent, 1); (6) Inflorescence Prophylls (present, 0; absent, 1).