Monophagy


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Monophagy

 

an extreme type of specialized feeding in animals, in which the diet consists of a single food. It is common predominantly among groups with a large number of species, particularly among insects, some worms, crustaceans, and mollusks; it is very rare in vertebrates. Monophagy is common among herbivorous species, for example, the small form of the weevil Calandra granaria feeds only on wheat grains, while the large form feeds only on corn; monophagy is also characteristic of Phylloxera and other aphids.

Monophagy is common among animal parasites. For example, the nematode Cystoopsis acipenseris lives only in the sterlet, and the fluke Anchylodiscus siluri is found only in the sheatfish. Monophagy also characterizes a number of isopodan Malacostraca and bloodsucking parasites (ticks and fleas).

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virescens, their extremely different host range, and different vulnerability to parasitoids suggest that natural enemies may have played a key role in the evolution of monophagy in H.
In the gloriosa clade (B) Peucedanum ostruthium (Peucedaneae) is the only plant (tribe) that all these species feed on readily; thus, in this clade, either a successive broadening of the food spectrum might be hypothesized or a secondary restriction to monophagy in O.
Considering the patchy distribution of the hosts of Ciidae, the existence of strong selection against specialization, particularly monophagy, can be expected to be operating.
Facultative monophagy as a consequence of prior feeding experience: behavioral and physiological specialization in Colias philodice larvae.
Origins of the regional feeding abilities in the tiger swallowtail butterfly: ecological monophagy and the Papilio glaucus australis subspecies in Florida.