Mujtahid

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Mujtahid

 

a Muslim theologian and legal expert who in the Middle Ages possessed the ijtihad (the right of independent interpretation of religious and legal matters). In Sunnism, the mujtahid is the founder and head of the madhabs (schools of Muslim jurisprudence). In Shiism, the mujtahid is a representative of the most influential circles of the upper Shiite clergy (called mojtahed in Persian).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Assembly consists of 88 Mujtahids (religious scholars who have been certified as capable of interpreting religious law) that are elected by direct public vote for eight-year terms.
They achieved this by stratifying legal knowledge in their typologies of muftis and judges in ways that had not been envisioned earlier, justifying their typologies by invoking tropes of decline and the extinction of mujtahids.
The Assembly of Experts is a deliberative body of Mujtahids (Islamic theologians) that is tasked with appointing and removing Iran's supreme leader and supervising his activities.
This means that individuals who wish to play a role in government using their religious credentials need to meet the criteria of regime authorities, even if they are well known as mujtahids by the clerical establishment.
The observation that Mujtahids, religious leaders of higher order than the clerics of the community, wear trousers and shirts was presented as the rationale of it being in accordance with the religion.
The Experts Assembly of Iran is a deliberative body of 86 Mujtahids (Islamic scholars).
The Islamic judiciary was at its best when it was a creative judiciary in which judges were to be mujtahids.
The law banned all Iranians from wearing religious dress except for certain state-defined categories of clerics, including mujtahids with certificates of ijtihad recognized by a marja, clerics in rural areas who had passed the necessary exams, Sunni clerics with permission to issue fatwas, mosque leaders, seminarians with a clerical certificate issued by the Ministry of Culture, seminary teachers, clergymen of other religions and those with permission from a mujtahid to transmit or teach the hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad and the twelve Shiite imams).
Beyond that theme, the articles traverse broad chronological and topical ground, offering examinations of such subjects as the Nujtavi movement of the 15th to 17th century, the reactions of mujtahids (religious scholars) to Christian evangelicalism in the early 19th century, the nature of the clerical hierarchy and the emergence of the "source of emulations" in the 19th century as the form of clerical authority, the changes in understandings of clerical authority promoted by Ayatollah Khomenei, the role of the American "Great Satan" in achieving discipline over the revolutionary self and its roots in the demonology of Cold War propaganda, and expressions of popular piety in contemporary Iran.
However, in his work on Islamic government, the late Iranian supreme leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, expanded the jurisdiction of mujtahids over their followers to include, in addition to issues of faith, issues of a political, social and economic nature.
80) This complicated way of finding acceptance, which has its genesis in the deliberate competition among the mujtahids, has meant that several marjas have existed next to each other.
With the increasing crystallisation of the Ja'fari theology, the mujtahids (called ayatollahs today) became the most powerful members of the religious classes.