mulberry


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mulberry,

common name for the Moraceae, a family of deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs, often climbing, mostly of pantropical distribution, and characterized by milky sap. Several genera bear edible fruit, e.g., Morus, (true mulberries), Ficus (the fig genus), and Artocarpus, which includes the breadfruit and related species. The related hemp family, whose plants do not contain latex, were formerly included in this family.

Common Species and Their Uses

The mulberry family is most important as the basis of the silkworm industry; silkworms feed on the leaves of the mulberries (genus Morus) and sometimes of the Osage orange (Maclura pomifera). The white mulberry (M. alba) has been cultivated in China since very early times. In the Middle Ages it began to replace the black mulberry (M. nigra), which had been grown by the Greeks and Romans and, from the 9th cent., by the people of N Europe for silkworm culture. In Greek legend the berries of the white mulberry turned red when its roots were bathed by the blood of the lovers Pyramis and Thisbe, who killed themselves. Both the white and the red mulberry (M. rubra, native to North America) have been cultivated in America since colonial times, but the lack of cheap hand labor prevented the establishment of a silkworm industry. Mulberry fruits are tender and juicy and resemble blackberries. In the South the fruit of M. rubra is made into wine and is considered a valuable agricultural and wildlife feed.

The Osage orange, also called bowwood because it was used by the Osage tribe to make bows, is a hardy tree native to the S central United States. Its fruit is used as a natural insect repellent. Cultivated widely, often as a hedge plant because of its spiny, impenetrable branches, it is a source of a flexible and durable wood and of a yellow-orange dye, from the root bark, that is similar to the more widely used fustic (Maclura tinctoria). The heartwood of fustic yields a yellowish or olive dye, also called fustic, that has been used chiefly for dyeing woolens; it has largely been replaced by synthetic aniline dyes. In its native habitat of Central and South America the fustic is also a timber tree.

Fiber plants of the mulberry family include the paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) and the upas tree (Antiaris toxicara) of the East Asian tropics, where the bast fiber is utilized for rough fabrics and for paper, often after a crude retting process. The latex of the upas [Malay,=poison tree] contains a cardiac glycoside used for arrow poison; the similarly employed strychnine tree of the loganialogania
, common name for the Loganiaceae, a family of herbs, shrubs, and trees of warmer climates, including many woody climbing species. Some plants of this family are grown in the United States as ornamentals, and several are sources of medicines and poisons.
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 family is sometimes also called upas.

The breadfruit (Artocarpus ultilis) is cultivated as a staple food plant in the Pacific tropics and in the West Indies, where it was introduced from Polynesia in the late 18th cent.; the Bounty was carrying breadfruit plants to Jamaica when the famous mutiny occurred. The compound, high-carbohydrate fruit has a taste when cooked that resembles that of fresh bread or cooked potatoes. The tree's wood, fiber, and latex are also variously utilized locally. The important figfig,
name for members of the genus Ficus of the family Moraceae (mulberry family). This large genus contains some 800 species of widely varied tropical vines (some of which are epiphytic); shrubs; and trees, including the banyan, the peepul, or bo tree, and the
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 genus includes fruit trees, ornamentals (e.g., the rubber plant), and several species renowned in the religion and legends of India (e.g., the banyanbanyan
, species of fig (Ficus bengalensis) of the family Moraceae (mulberry family), native to India, where it is venerated. Its seeds usually germinate in the branches of some tree where they have been dropped by birds.
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 and the bo treebo tree
or pipal
, fig tree (Ficus religiosa) of India held sacred by the Buddhists, who believe that Gautama received enlightenment under a bo tree at Bodh Gaya. A slip of this tree was planted at Anuradhapura to become one of the oldest known trees.
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).

Classification

The mulberry family is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Urticales.

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mulberry

mulberry

50 ft (15m) Delicious berries have powerful antioxidants, cancer prevention, life extension, cleans blood, strengthens kidneys, hearing, vision, diabetes, constipation, anemia, graying hair. The berries are great for improving vision. The bark is a laxative- leaves are an amalase inhibitor so they block the breakdown of carbohydrates into simple sugars, so it acts as a diet aid by preventing you from being able to absorb the carbohydrates. Root tea is used for tapeworms, urinary problems, bowel problems, diarrhea, dystentery. Sap used externally for ringworm. You can collect the leaves in the fall, dry them and use them as tea. Leaves used for heart conditions, cholesterol, liver problems (cleans liver), cancer, digestive issues. It is said there is almost nothing the leaves, bark, and gum resin boiled as tea cannot help alleviate from the body. The berries are great when dried. Mix with nuts and grind into pulp and make into "candy" balls. Male and female trees required for fruit.

mulberry

[′məl‚ber·ē]
(botany)
Any of various trees of the genus Morus (family Moraceae), characterized by milky sap and simple, often lobed alternate leaves.

mulberry

1. any moraceous tree of the temperate genus Morus, having edible blackberry-like fruit, such as M. alba (white mulberry), the leaves of which are used to feed silkworms
2. any of several similar or related trees, such as the paper mulberry and Indian mulberry
3. 
a. a dark purple colour
b. (as adjective): a mulberry dress
References in classic literature ?
Sir Mulberry garnished this speech with a hoarse laugh, and terminated it with a pleasant oath regarding Mr Nickleby's limbs, whereat Messrs Pyke and Pluck laughed consumedly.
These gentlemen had not yet quite recovered the jest, when dinner was announced, and then they were thrown into fresh ecstasies by a similar cause; for Sir Mulberry Hawk, in an excess of humour, shot dexterously past Lord Frederick Verisopht who was about to lead Kate downstairs, and drew her arm through his up to the elbow.
No, damn it, Verisopht,' said Sir Mulberry, 'fair play's a jewel, and Miss Nickleby and I settled the matter with our eyes ten minutes ago.
Rendered additionally witty by this applause, Sir Mulberry Hawk leered upon his friends most facetiously, and led Kate downstairs with an air of familiarity, which roused in her gentle breast such burning indignation, as she felt it almost impossible to repress.
Well, you attend to your dinner,' said Sir Mulberry, 'and don't mind Miss Nickleby and me, for we shall prove very indifferent company, I dare say.
Sir Mulberry Hawk was remarkable for his tact in ruining, by himself and his creatures, young gentlemen of fortune--a genteel and elegant profession, of which he had undoubtedly gained the head.
You'll have plenty of it, in your time,' returned Sir Mulberry Hawk; 'Nickleby will tell you that.
Well, that is very strange,' said the mulberry man, with great simplicity of manner.
As the mulberry man said this, he turned his glass upside down, by way of reminding his companion that he had nothing left wherewith to slake his thirst.
I should rather suspect it was,' said the mulberry man, sipping his liquor, with a complacent face.
Trotter smiled, and holding his glass in his left hand, gave four distinct slaps on the pockets of his mulberry indescribables with his right, as if to intimate that his master might have done the same without alarming anybody much by the chinking of coin.
Come this way,' said Sam, suddenly jumping up, and grasping the mulberry man by the arm.