Neuropathy

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neuropathy

[nu̇′räp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any disease affecting neurons.

Neuropathy

 

a functional weakness of the nervous system accompanied by a decrease in the absolute threshold (also called the stimulus, or sensitivity, threshold); the condition is frequently congenital.

Neuropathy arises as a disturbance in the function of the autonomic nervous system owing to deleterious influences on the fetus as a whole (for example, infection in the pregnant mother, trauma, or poisoning) or on the individual embryonic cells (as occurs when the parents suffer from alcoholism). Family circumstances, upbringing, and illnesses suffered by the infant play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathy. The symptoms usually emerge in childhood or adolescence. When neuropathy occurs in early childhood, disturbances of sleep and appetite are most characteristic; the infant has difficulty in falling asleep, awakes easily, suckles poorly, and frequently spits up. Later, vomiting occurs, and either diarrhea or constipation develop.

From the preschool years on, increased general excitability and the rapid onset of fatigue and exhaustion are observed, in addition to continued disturbances of sleep and appetite. Children who suffer from neuropathy blush easily in response to irritation. Motor hyperactivity, nervous tics, and stammering are frequent. In adolescence, autonomic-vascular instability becomes more acute, as evidenced by frequently occurring nervous palpitation, abrupt shifts in blood pressure, headaches, dizzy spells, and fainting spells. The prognosis is favorable, with the neuropathic symptoms usually disappearing with age.

REFERENCES

Simson, T. Nevropatii, psikhopatii i reaktivnye sostoianiia mladencheskogo vozrasta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Sukhareva, G. E. Klinicheskie lektsii po psikhiatrii detskogo vozrasta, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

L. M. SHMAONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Alan Pestronk and his colleagues found that patients with multifocal motor neuropathy often carried IgM anti-GM1 antibodies.
This release includes forward-looking statements concerning the potential use of GAMMAGARD LIQUID for the treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy.
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NYSE:BAX) announced today that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has issued a positive opinion for extension of the therapeutic indications of KIOVIG to include a new indication for multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), a severe, debilitating disorder requiring lifelong treatment.
Over the last 12 months, Baxter has initiated 14 Phase III clinical trials, and is advancing numerous earlier stage clinical trials of therapies that have the potential to profoundly impact the treatment and delivery of care for chronic diseases like Alzheimer's, kidney failure, cardiovascular, diabetes, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, multifocal motor neuropathy, as well as public health threats like pandemic and seasonal influenza.

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