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Related to multinodular goiter: toxic multinodular goiter


see thyroid glandthyroid gland,
endocrine gland, situated in the neck, that secretes hormones necessary for growth and proper metabolism. It consists of two lobes connected by a narrow segment called the isthmus. The lobes lie on either side of the trachea, the isthmus in front of it.
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in man, enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by the proliferation of its functional lymphoid tissue (parenchyma) or of its connective-tissue stroma. The proliferation of thyroid epithelium may embrace the entire thyroid parenchyma (diffuse goiter), or it may originate in a particular portion of the parenchyma (nodular goiter). Slight enlargement of the gland may occur in puberty or during menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. Goiter may be associated with a number of conditions—diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, and sporadic and endemic goiter.

A goiter may be unilateral or bilateral. Most often it is found in the neck; sometimes it is located behind the sternum (substernal goiter). A goiter usually alters the contours of the neck; although with substernal and deep-lying goiters the contours of the neck may remain normal. A goiter results in malfunction of the thyroid gland, but in the euthyroid form there need not be any functional impairment. Sporadic goiter is found in a number of localities and is caused by an endogenous (depending on internal factors) iodine deficiency in the body. Endemic goiter is found in certain biogeochemical areas where there is an insufficiency of iodine in the air, water, soil, and food products (instead of 200–220 μg, 20–80 μg of iodine or less enters the human body). Insufficiency of iodine in the environment may be aggravated by unfavorable exogenous (social, everyday, and sanitary-hygienic conditions) or endogenous (pregnancy, lactation, hypovitaminoses, helminthiases) factors. Iodine deficiency may result from infectious diseases or intoxications. A relative deficiency may occur when the ratio of iodine to certain chemical compounds (calcium, fluorine, and so forth) in the body is upset. Endemic goiter is found in almost every country, especially in mountainous regions, valleys, foothills, and watersheds and in swampy, sandy, and peaty regions. It is almost never found in chernozem zones.

Goiter prevention includes correcting unhealthy conditions in the throat and mouth, vermifuge treatment, and improvement of the conditions of sanitation and hygiene of daily life (keeping dwellings clean, maintaining the water supply properly, sound nutrition); individual and group iodine prophylaxis (iodized table salt); and early detection and dispensary observation of goiter patients. Treatment, depending on the form and symptoms of goiter, includes iodine preparations, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, and diiodothyrosine. Surgery is indicated for nodular and mixed goiter; it is also recommended for diffuse goiter if more conservative treatment proves ineffective.



An enlargement of all or part of the thyroid gland; may be accompanied by a hormonal dysfunction.


(US), goiter
Pathol a swelling of the thyroid gland, in some cases nearly doubling the size of the neck, usually caused by under- or overproduction of hormone by the gland
References in periodicals archive ?
Total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter in the elderly.
30 (60%) had Graves' disease and 20 (40%) had multinodular goiter.
Multinodular goiter (with autonomous areas in the thyroid gland) 2.
Common indications for total thyroidectomy include suspected or biopsy-proven malignancy of the thyroid gland, multinodular goiter with compressive symptoms, and Graves disease.
All patients had thyroidectomies for multinodular goiter 2 weeks after HIFU, so long-term follow-up data are not available.
In the past, surgeons frequently observed thyroid storm during thyroidectomy for Graves disease or toxic multinodular goiter.
Thyrogen is also being evaluated in two therapeutic indications, tumor ablation and non-toxic multinodular goiter.
Type I AIT occurs in patients with preexisting thyroid disease, such as multinodular goiter or Graves disease.
Past medical history included a right hemithyroidectomy for a multinodular goiter and Hashimoto's disease.
We describe the case of a 40-year-old man with subglottic thyroid tissue and multinodular goiter who had been misdiagnosed earlier with bronchial asthma.
131]I) treatment of multinodular goiter, recommendations for percutaneous ethanol ablation of cystic nodules, and radionuclide scanning.
3] toxicosis is usually seen in conjunction with states of endogenous hyperthyroidism such as Graves disease, toxic adenoma, or toxic multinodular goiter.