spasm

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Related to muscle spasm: Muscle cramp, Muscle twitch

spasm,

involuntary rigid muscle contraction, often persistent and often accompanied by pain. It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. The spasm may be confined to one group of muscles or it may be severe and fairly generalized, as in convulsionsconvulsion,
sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of the muscles of the body, often accompanied by loss of consciousness. It is not known what causes the abnormal impulses from the brain that result in convulsive seizures, since the disturbance may arise in normal brain
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. Painless localized spasms are called tics. These purposeless movements, usually of some part of the face, may begin as purposeful movement in response to some stimulus but eventually are carried out automatically, apparently without reason. They may disappear spontaneously after a time, or may require the elimination of some physical or psychic cause.

Spasm

 

an involuntary tonic contraction (cramp) of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may affect striated skeletal muscles (for example, with certain paralyses) or smooth muscles. Subject to spasms are the smooth muscles of the vascular wall (for instance, during angina pectoris), the bronchi, the esophagus (cardiospasm), and the intestine. Skeletal-muscle spasms make movement difficult, and smooth-muscle spasms disrupt various functions of organs.


Spasm

 

a sudden involuntary muscular contraction marked by extreme tension. Two types of spasms are distinguished: tonic and clonic. In tonic spasm, the tension persists for a long time, and in clonic spasm, there are synchronous jerking muscular contractions, which may be diffuse or limited. Spasms of different muscle groups are designated by specific terms, for example, trismus (spasm of the masticatory muscles) and blepharospasm (spasm of the ring muscle of the eye). Clonic spasms of the entire body are sometimes called convulsions.

Spasm may arise spontaneously or as a reaction to external influences, for example, spasm of the gastrocnemius muscles after chilling in water. It may also result from internal influences, for example, tension of the abdominal muscles in peritonitis. Spasm may be a manifestation of epilepsy, eclampsia, spasmophilia, inflammation, brain tumor and trauma, and many other disorders. In addition to spasm of striated muscles, there is spasm of smooth muscles, for example, cardiospasm and pylorospasm. In children, spasm is most common at a very early age, owing to the structure and functioning of the brain at this stage of life; it results from infection, poisoning, trauma, and various psychogenic factors.

Spasm is treated by caring for the underlying disorder and by administering such anticonvulsants as phenobarbital, primidone, and diphenylhydantoin. The affected person should get sufficient sleep and should abstain from alcohol.

V. A. KARLOV

spasm

[′spaz·əm]
(medicine)
An involuntary and abnormal contraction of isolated bundles of muscle or groups of muscles resulting from a chemical imbalance due to fatigue, ischemia, or trauma.

spasm

an involuntary muscular contraction, esp one resulting in cramp or convulsion
References in periodicals archive ?
A total of 141 patients with muscle spasm associated with pain were screened, and 115 eligible patients were randomized into two groups.
Surgically exposed nerve endings and muscle stretch receptors activate local spinal reflexes resulting in muscle spasm.
com Try this: Take an anti-inflammatory painkiller such as ibuprofen and hold a hot-water bottle to the back of your neck to reduce pain and muscle spasms.
Now her family are to sue the doctor, who carried out no tests of blood pressure or pulse before telling her she only had a muscle spasm.
She was unable to self-catheterize because of the muscle spasm and therefore required a suprapubic catheter.
It reflects the referral of the muscle spasm to the ear as a representation of the vestibulocollic reflex.
Teeth clenching and grinding (bruxism) can cause muscle spasm, or be caused by it - and muscle spasm, in turn, produces still more spasm.
Examples of this would be periostial inflammation with bone metastasis or smooth muscle spasm.
Global Markets Direct's, 'Muscle Spasm - Pipeline Review, H1 2012', provides an overview of the Muscle Spasm therapeutic pipeline.
Lorrys Options, Dean Childs's 2009 Golden Jacket champion, faces a race against time if he is to be able to mount a title defence as he has not yet fully recovered from a muscle spasm suffered early this week.
The biopharmaceutical company is developing therapeutic candidates to help control inflammation, pain, and muscle spasm during and after knee surgeries.