Musculoskeletal System

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musculoskeletal system

[¦məs·kyə·lō′skel·ə·təl ‚sis·təm]
The muscular and skeletal elements of vertebrates, considered as a functional unit.

Musculoskeletal System


a single complex that consists of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and the nerves that innervate these parts. In humans and animals the musculoskeletal system supports the body, controls locomotion, and provides for movement of the individual parts and organs, for example, the head and the extremities.

The coordination of function in the locomotor system is determined during embryogenesis, when the sclerotomes—from which the skeletal system develops—are laid down parallel to the myotomes—from which the muscles develop. The fixed portion of the musculoskeletal system is the skeleton—the sturdy foundation of the body, which also protects the internal organs from a number of mechanical influences, such as the impact of a blow.

To the bones of the skeleton are attached the striated, or skeletal, muscles, which are innervated and controlled by nerve endings of nerves that originate in the central nervous system (seeMOTOR ANALYZER).

Muscles constitute the active part of the musculoskeletal system. By means of the coordinated activity of the entire musculature of the body, many different types of movement can be effected. Active tensing of muscles is required to support the body while standing and sitting; to effect the various forms of locomotion, such as walking, running, swimming, crawling, and jumping; and to bring about movement in the individual parts of the body. Illnesses of or injuries to any part of the musculoskeletal system can disturb the motion and form of the entire body; the whole musculoskeletal system can suffer, and often the internal organs are harmed as well. For example, when a significant portion of one extremity is lost, curvature of the spine can develop, after which the thorax becomes deformed; these changes can then precipitate circulatory disturbances and disorders in the respiratory organs.


References in periodicals archive ?
3) Practicing proper ergonomics can reduce the chance of developing a musculoskeletal disorder.
The Comprehensive Musculoskeletal Center will offer patients services from providers in the specialties of Anesthesia (pain), Family Medicine, Internal Medicine (General Medicine, Geriatrics, Rheumatology), Neurosurgery (spine), Orthopedic Surgery, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Radiology and Surgery (Plastic) and Emergency Medicine.
These rates could seem like higher than expected, however, it should be kept in mind that the study population consisted of individuals seeking medical help for their musculoskeletal complaints.
Overweight and obese children 12 to 17 years old were nearly twice as likely to see their doctors for musculoskeletal problems in the course of a year.
The authors investigated the long-term outcomes of a combination of pharmacological and behavioural interventions in primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain and co-morbid depression.
Regarding occupational health and safety, musculoskeletal problems are serious injuries which, however, are always neglected by most construction workers (Washington State Department of Labor and Industries 2007).
Permission to study and report only non-musculoskeletal sports medicine topics excluding musculoskeletal topics was granted at the time due to other ongoing projects at the ABFM involving musculoskeletal topics.
For example, more than seven million adults in the UK, which equates to 15% of the population, have long-term health problems due to arthritis and related musculoskeletal conditions.
MIAMI -- Athletic patients with significant musculoskeletal pain should be screened for co-morbid depression and panic disorder, according to study findings presented at the annual meeting of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.
Primary outcomes of interest are upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and function as well as quality of life.
During undergraduate study of physiotherapy, general knowledge of musculoskeletal, neurology, and respiratory physiotherapy is required.

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