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a primarily light play in which the resources of the stage, popular music, choreography, drama, and opera are used. The musical was developed in the USA in the late 19th century.

Bicknell’s play, The Black Crook, which combined melodrama, song, and “showgirls,” was first presented in 1866 and played for 25 years. In New York in the early 20th century the Negro actors B. Williams and G. Walker presented several musical comedies distinguished for their originality and striking theatricality. (The composer of these comedies was W. M. Cook.) The musical comedy became the most popular form of American theater, particularly after World War I. The best of the later musicals include Kern’s Show Boat (1929), Gershwin’s Of Thee I Sing (1931), Weill’s Johnny Johnson (1936), Rodgers’ Oklahoma! (1943), Porter’s Kiss Me, Kate (1948), Loewe’s My Fair Lady (1956), and Herman’s Hello, Dolly! (1964). They were distinguished by their content, fine directorial skill, brilliant visual impact, and melodious, catchy music.

Dance is a major component of musicals. At first primarily tap dancing and chorus-line numbers were used, but in Bernstein’s West Side Story, one of the best American musicals (choreographer Jerome Robbins, 1957), the dance attained outstanding dramatic expressiveness.

The popularity and accessibility of musicals are often exploited by impresarios who form touring companies of the most successful shows and present them in other countries. Often, movies are based on musicals: Oliver! (Bart, Great Britain, 1970); Funny Girl (Styne, USA, 1969); The Girls From Rochefort (Legrand, France, 1966); and The Old Folks at the Hops Harvest (Bažant, Malásek, and Hála, Czechoslovakia, 1964).

The musicals West Side Story, My Fair Lady, and Kiss Me, Kate have been presented in theaters in the USSR. Among the shows presented as musicals are My Brother Plays The Clarinet (Fel’tsman, 1968, at the Moscow Theater for Young Audiences), the cartoon The Bremen Musicians (Gladkov, 1970), and the film Shel’menko the Batman (Solov’ev-Sedoi, 1971).


Volyntsev, A. “Azbuka zhanra.” Teatr, 1967, no. 9.
Ewen, D. The Story of America’s Musical Theater. Philadelphia, 1961.
Osolsobĕ, Y. Muzikál je, když Prague, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
Jusqu'a tout recemment, le contenu detaille des archives musicales des freres du SacreCoeur demeurait inconnu.
Le point de depart etant "Le paysage des bibliotheques musicales en France et en Europe", Gilles Pierret, Bertrand Bonnieux et Pamela Thompson nous exposent une image presque satellite des bibliotheques, face a la revolution des pratiques d'ecoute et de creation, des collections patrimoniales et des lieuxressources.
Par ailleurs, cet homme qui a creee la joie musicale et le bonheur des passionnes de sa musique, souffrait, certes, ces derniers temps.
Le musicologue Louis Brouillette a dresse un panorama des archives musicales canadiennes de la congregation des Freres du SacreCoeur qui, depuis peu, peuvent etre consultees par les chercheurs et le grand public a Victoriaville (Quebec).
Instead, the $15,000 second prize, offered by Standard Life, the Jeunesses Musicales of Canada Foundation and the Opera Guild, was shared equally by sopranos Marianne Fiset and Pascale Beaudin and bass-baritone Alexandre Sylvestre.
Musurgia (subtitled Analyse et pratique musicales or Musicales revue trimestrielle d'analyse et de theorie musicale [Music Analysis and Practice, or, Quarterly Journal of Music Analysis and Theory]).
Apres les partitions musicales, des poemes de bienvenue et un defile des troupes participantes, la competition a demarre avec les groupes de l'association culturelle [beaucoup moins que] Ahbab El Ghiwan [beaucoup plus grand que] d'Adrar, [beaucoup moins que] Othmania [beaucoup plus grand que] d'Oran et de l'association culturelle [beaucoup moins que] Affak [beaucoup plus grand que] d'Ain Temouchent.
L'icone americaine devait se produire sur la scene de l'OLM Souissi aux heures propices du debut du week-end, donnant le la a un emouvant voyage d'exploration des differentes varietes musicales du monde.
Appogiature, revue d'etudes et d'informations musicales (Paris, 1931-1933)
SOPRANO CHANTAL DIONNE RECEIVED THE JURY'S Award and the Festival Award last June at the Concert-Competition of the Schlumberger Foundation, Les grandes voix de demain, at the Festival des Heures Musicales de Biot in France.
The 34th International Jeunesses Musicales Piano and Piano Duo Competition will take place in Belgrade March 20-April 2, 2004.