THE SYNTHETIC fragrance musk ketone has been correctly declared a carcinogen with the same potential dangers to consumers as musk xylene
, a European Commission committee has concluded.
From 1995 to 2000, the total worldwide usage declined from 300 tons to 200 tons for musk xylene and musk ketone combined.
068 Abbreviations: MK, musk ketone; MX, musk xylene.
Even 24 hours after contact with the nitromusk called musk xylene
or the polycyclic musks branded galaxolide and tonalide, mussel tissues absorbed and retained significantly more rhodamine B than usual.
A 1999 study detected the synthetic musk xylene
in the blood of both human and animal subjects; musk xylene
has been linked to higher miscarriage rates in humans.
One type, musk xylene
, has been shown to cause cancer in mice.
The seven substances are: musk xylene
(vPvB); 4,4`-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA - carcinogenic); short-chained chlorinated paraffins (PBT and vPvB); hexabromocyclododecane - (HBCDD - PBT); bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP - toxic for reproduction); benzylbutylphthalate (BBP - toxic for reproduction); and dibutylphthalate (DBP - toxic for reproduction).
These indirect and long-term toxicity effects are of particular concern because these chemicals are stable and bioaccumulate; for example, musk xylene has a half-life of 70 days in human tissue (Riedel and Dekant 1999).
Biotransformation and toxicokinetics of musk xylene in humans.
Efflux transport remained compromised 48 hours after exposure in tissue treated with certain commonly used compounds: musk xylene
, musk ketone, Galaxolide, and Celestolide.
(MX) is the most common nitromusk, but use was discontinued in Japan and a voluntary ban is in force in Germany (Kafferlein et al.
As in most cases, the "other chemical" category contains a variety of chemicals ranging from contemporary pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nicotine, ethanol, phthalates, musk xylenes
, and phytoestrogens, such as genestein.