Mycobacterium

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Related to mycobacteria: Atypical mycobacteria, Nontuberculous mycobacteria

Mycobacterium

 

a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).

A. A. IMSHENETSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Pathologic examination confirmed suppurative vegetations with numerous bacterial colonies consistent with AFB; AFB staining disclosed numerous mycobacteria (Figure, http://wwwnc.
Mycobacteria are known to cause tuberculosis and leprosy, but non-TB mycobacteria are common in the environment, even in tap water, and are resistant to commonly used disinfectants.
Methods: One hundred nineteen isolates of environmental mycobacteria were grown from 291 (116 soil and 175 water) samples.
Han compared the lethal bacterium's 16S rRNA gene and five others to various mycobacteria.
for the Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Study Group.
The treating occupational physician scheduled a meeting with the plant occupational physician, industrial hygienists, and the contracting supplier of the metalworking fluids to recommend a) a survey of symptoms and chest X rays of workers exposed to metalworking fluids to identify any additional cases and b) testing of all metalworking fluid reservoirs in the facility for mycobacteria.
Compared with the skin test, the QuantiFERON test is unaffected by subjective interpretation, previous vaccinations or unrelated mycobacteria, officials said.
Stains and cultures for bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria were negative.
New Brunswick, NJ 08901) to believe that bacteriocins might inhibit mycobacteria.
The genus Mycobacterium consists of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and >80 species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, including pathogenic, opportunistic, and nonpathogenic species.
Researchers had previously found at least three mycobacteria that infect fish.
The mycobacteria most commonly affecting humans are Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae.