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a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).


References in periodicals archive ?
Winthrop, Treatment patterns of pediatric nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis as reported by nationwide surveys of pediatric otolaryngology and infectious disease societies.
3], represent the largest percentage of those with articular mycobacterial infections.
Two aspirates were performed, and the syringe rinsed in Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) medium for mycobacterial culture.
Bcg induced mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor in an infant.
Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence and clinical features: an emerging public health disease.
Transplant patients are at risk for developing various types of opportunistic infections like in our case; non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.
Six (24%) patients who were found to have mycobacterial infection were female and 19 (76%) were male.
Take home message for prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in the laparoscopic surgery:
Mycobacterial stationary phase induced by low oxygen tension: cell wall thickening and localization of the 16-kilodalton [alpha]-crystallin homolog.
The availability of genome sequences for Mtb and other mycobacterial species, mice and humans together with relatively recent developments in computer algorithms have facilitated the use of in silico bioinformatics methods for the identification of new TB vaccine candidates.
self-antibodies in previously healthy adults presenting with severe Mycobacterial infections (4) or antibodies to interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22 that are associated with chronic candidiasis (5) this group of autoantibodies are now recognized as phenocopies or acquire immune disorders resembling primary genetic immunodeficiency diseases (6).