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a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).


References in periodicals archive ?
Characterization of clonal complexity in tuberculosis by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing.
An additional 6 cultures were identified as MTBc, and the remaining 61 cultures could not be speciated owing to contamination or an absence of mycobacterial DNA (Table 1).
Pathologic examination of granulation tissue obtained from the ear canal revealed chronic inflammation with multinucleated giant cells, which suggested a mycobacterial infection (figure 1).
The crude incidence rate of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in this 3.
All of the nontuberculous mycobacterial cases were cervical lymph nodes in healthy children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, whereas Bartonella lymphadenitis affected children older than 6 years and was typically found in noncervical lymph nodes.
Urocidin(TM) is a formulation of MCC, a sterile mycobacterial cell wall-DNA complex composition that appears to have a dual mode of action: immune stimulation and direct anticancer activity.
One of these networks contains genes that make mycobacterial transcription factor (MprA) and another protein called sigma factor E (SigE).
Nontuberculosis mycobacterial infection should be considered in patients with advanced immune deficiency.
Among specific topics are unraveling the ecology of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the nasopharynx, using gene swapping to study the gene induction of glycopeptide resistance, using DNA arrays to study transcriptional responses to anti-mycobacterial compounds, measuring heme levels and respiration rate in Salmonella enterica serovar tymphimurium, applying continuous culture to measure the effect of environmental stress on mutation frequency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, identifying efflux-mediated multi-drug resistance in bacterial clinical isolates by two simple methods, and rapid methods for testing inhibitors of mycobacterial growth.
Figuring that it might be an atypical mycobacterial infection, I quarantined myself and spent a month at home, much of it bedridden and extremely weak.