Mycoplasmas

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Related to mycoplasma: Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma

Mycoplasmas

The smallest prokaryotic microorganisms that are able to grow on cell-free artificial media. Their genome size is also among the smallest recorded in prokaryotes, about 5 × 108 to 109 daltons. The mycoplasmas differ from almost all other prokaryotes in lacking a rigid cell wall and in their incapability to synthesize peptidoglycan, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall.

Taxonomically, the mycoplasmas are assigned to a distinct class, the Mollicutes, containing two orders, Mycoplasmatales and Acholeplasmatales. The distinction between the orders is based primarily on differences in nutritional criteria: members of the Mycoplasmatales require cholesterol or other sterols for growth whereas those of the second order do not. The term mycoplasmas is generally used as the vernacular or trivial name for all members of the class Mollicutes, irrespective of the classification in a particular genus.

The mycoplasmas are almost ubiquitous in nature. Several species are important pathogens of humans, animals and plants, while others constitute part of the normal microbial flora of, for example, the upper respiratory and lower urogenital tracts of humans. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was found to be the cause of cold agglutinin-associated primary atypical pneumonia. This disease is particularly frequent in the 5–15-year age group; it is probably endemic almost all over the world and often reaches epidemic proportions at intervals of 4 to 5 years.

Mycoplasmas are generally highly resistant to benzyl penicillin and other antibiotics which act by interfering with the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. They are usually susceptible to antibiotics that specifically inhibit protein synthesis in prokaryotes, such as tetracyclines and chloramphenicol. Susceptibility to other antibiotics, such as erythromycin and other macrolides, is variable. See Antibiotic, Bacterial physiology and metabolism, Plant pathology, Pneumonia

References in periodicals archive ?
Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae: characteristics of isolates and clinical aspects of community-acquired pneumonia.
8220;It is essential that biological products be tested for mycoplasma contamination to assure consistency of production and final product safety.
In this study two primers (forward and reverse) were previously designed by Pourbakhsh [22] and amplify a 163 bp region of 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma genus.
Cutaneous vasculitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: case report and literature review.
Because Mycoplasma fermentans has been identified in the renal tissues of AIDS patients with HIVAN at autopsy (8) and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, throat swabs, and urine samples from HIV-infected patients (9), we designed a case-control study to compare the prevalence of Mycoplasma infection in HIV-infected patients with and without HIVAN.
In 2007, Eva Sapi, an assistant professor of cellular and molecular biology and environmental science at the University of New Haven, reported the presence of Mycoplasma organisms in over 84% of 150 local deer ticks that she and several graduate students had examined.
Acetone extracts of the leaves of Anoigeissus leiocarpus and the Tl/44 vaccine strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.
1966: Studies on the Rous virus as a pleomorphic form of Mycoplasma
The third edition adds entries on new vaccines and viruses, defensins, food safety, mycoplasma pneumonia, and neonatal infections.
We describe a case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae chest infection associated with Stevens Johnson syndrome.
a nucleic acid test manufacturer, announced an agreement in which Millipore will market and sell Gen-Probe's Mycoplasma Tissue Culture Non-Isotopic (MTC-NI) test.
Abstract: A 40-year-old white male developed Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (IgM titer 1:256) as well as autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to cold agglutinins (titer of 1:512).