Myxomatosis

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Related to myxoma virus: Myxo, Leporipoxvirus

myxomatosis

[mik‚sō·mə′tō·səs]
(veterinary medicine)
A virus disease of rabbits producing fever, skin lesions resembling myxomas, and mucoid swelling of mucous membranes.

Myxomatosis

 

an acute viral disease of rabbits characterized by conjunctivitis and formation of edematous-gelatinous tumors of subcutaneous tissue in the head and scrotum. Myxomatosis was discovered and described by G. Sanarelli in Uruguay in 1898. Cases have been reported in America and Australia; the disease was imported into Europe in 1952. Rabbits and hares are susceptible to the disease. The source of the causative agent is an infected animal. Biting arthropod insects (mosquitoes, fleas, sandflies) play the principal role in the spread of myxomatosis. The course of the disease is acute. The skin becomes edematous and gathers into folds, and the ears droop. The swelling of the eyes and the front part of the head gives diseased rabbits a characteristic “leonine look.” Mortality is 90–100 percent. There is no specific remedy for the disease. Recovery imparts permanent immunity.

Farms on which myxomatosis is discovered are declared infected. All diseased rabbits, as well as those rabbits suspected of having or transmitting the disease, are slaughtered, and their carcasses are burned. The meat of rabbits suspected of being infected is disinfected by boiling.

References in periodicals archive ?
Analysis of myxoma virus genome using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Myxoma virus encodes an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase that enhances virulence.
Genome comparison of a nonpathogenic myxoma virus field strain with its ancestor, the virulent Lausanne strain.
Sequence mapping of the Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus.
Serp2, an inhibitor of the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme, is critical in the pathobiology of myxoma virus.
Role of the myxoma virus soluble CC-chemokine inhibitor glycoprotein, M-T1, during myxoma virus pathogenesis.
Myxoma virus Serp2 is a weak inhibitor of granzyme B and interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme in vitro and unlike CrmA cannot block apoptosis in cowpox virus-infected cells.
Myxoma virus leukemia-associated protein is responsible for major histocompatibility complex class I and Fas-CD95 down-regulation and defines scrapins, a new group of surface cellular receptor abductor proteins.
This will mean timing the introduction of the virus to September or October, when about 50-80% of rabbits in the population are susceptible to myxoma virus.
In field experiments, the researchers have released myxoma virus containing a natural genetic marker and measured its rate of spread across four large sites.