Some oil shale yield sulfur, ammonia, alumina, soda ash, uranium, and nahcolite
as shale oil extraction by products.
Oil shale formation is known to contain several types of carbonate minerals such as dawsonite and nahcolite
According to the XRD data base , the powder sample contains trona, dolomite, nahcolite
and natron phases.
Lowenstein and his colleague Robert Demicco at Binghamton University have discovered that nahcolite
, a rare, yellowish-green or brown carbonate mineral, only forms on earth under environmental conditions marked by very high atmospheric CO2 levels.
Lab tests indicate that nahcolite
would precipitate out of salty, alkaline lakes only if atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide were above 1,125 parts per million (ppm), Tim K.
Dawsonite and probably some of the other minerals crystallized at temperatures between 250[degrees] and 300[degrees]C, and nahcolite
crystallized at temperatures below 120[degrees]C.
Using digital automation architecture, advanced control systems and new instrumentation, American Soda saved money on both installation and startup costs at the Piceance nahcolite
mine in northwestern Colorado.
This project actually dates back to 1964 when Nielsen's father, Irv Nielsen, discovered what he believed to be commercial deposits of nahcolite
in the Piceance Creek Basin, a raw form of sodium bicarbonate.
Similarly, the company recently expanded its line of baking soda mouthwash and toothpaste after its research and development team found it could obtain commercial quantities of food-grade nahcolite
, a naturally occurring form of baking soda, and decided to formulate its new products with the ingredient.
In Western Colorado, he pioneered proprietary drilling techniques to recover Nahcolite
using high temperature solution mining and directional drilling--practices that are expected to be translatable to the shale oil recovery process.
Pyrolysis of oil shale is highly affected by the minerals contained, such as dawsonite, dolomite, quartz, and nahcolite
A commercial nahcolite
solution-mining operation now being built in western Colorado by American Soda LLP is scheduled to begin producing up to 1M-st soda ash and 150K-st/yr sodium bicarbonate starting in late 2000.