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(nän`jĭng`) or


(năn`kĭng`) [southern capital], city (1994 est. pop. 2,224,200), capital of Jiangsu prov., E central China, in a bend of the Chang (Yangtze) River. It has served at times in the past as capital of China. The second largest city in the region (after Shanghai), Nanjing is at the intersection of three major railroad lines. Industry, which once centered around "nankeen" cloth (unbleached cotton goods), was vigorously developed under the Communist government. The city now has an integrated iron-steel complex, an oil refinery, food-processing establishments, and hundreds of plants making chemicals, textiles, cement, fertilizers, machinery, weapons, electronic equipment, optical instruments, photographic equipment, and trucks. Nanjing has long been celebrated as a literary and political center. It was the capital of China from the 3d to 6th cent. A.D. and again from 1368 to 1421. The Treaty of Nanjing, signed in 1842 at the end of the Opium War, opened China to foreign trade. During the Taiping RebellionTaiping Rebellion,
1850–64, revolt against the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty of China. It was led by Hung Hsiu-ch'üan, a visionary from Guangdong who evolved a political creed and messianic religious ideology influenced by elements of Protestant Christianity.
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 insurgents held the city from 1853 to 1864. It was captured by the revolutionists in 1911, and in 1912 it became the capital of China's first president, Sun Yat-senSun Yat-sen
, Mandarin Sun Wen, 1866–1925, Chinese revolutionary. He was born near Guangzhou into a farm-owning family. He attended (1879–82) an Anglican boys school in Honolulu, where he came under Western influence, particularly that of Christianity.
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. When in 1927 the city fell to the Communists, the foreign residents fled to the protection of British and American warships on the Chang River. The Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 retook the city, and it became (1928) the regular Nationalist capital. In 1932, when the Japanese were threatening to attack the city, the government was temporarily removed to Luoyang, and on Nov. 21, 1937, just before Nanjing fell to the Japanese, it was moved to Chongqing. The Japanese entry into the city, accompanied by widespread killing and brutality, became known as the "rape of Nanking." The Japanese established (1938) their puppet regime in Nanjing. Chinese forces reoccupied the city Sept. 5, 1945, and the capitulation of the Japanese armies in China was signed there on Sept. 9. Nanjing again fell to the Communists in Apr., 1949, and from 1950 until 1952, when it became the provincial capital, Nanjing was administered as part of an autonomous region. The city has many institutions of higher learning, notably Nanjing Univ. and Nanjing Institute of Technology. The Nanjing Military Academy is there. The city is also noted for its library, and its astronomical observatory and botanical gardens are among China's largest. The original city wall (70 ft/21 m high), most of which still stands, dates from the Ming dynasty and encircles most of the modern city. The tomb of the first Ming emperor is approached by an avenue lined with colossal images of men and animals. Also of interest are the tomb of Sun Yat-sen, a memorial to China's war dead (a steel pagoda), the Taiping museum, and the 89-story Zifeng Tower (2010). A 4-mi (6.4 km), two-level railway and road bridge was completed across the Chang in 1968.


See I. Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997).


, Nanking, Nan-ching
a port in E central China, capital of Jiangsu province, on the Yangtze River: capital of the Chinese empire and a literary centre from the 14th to 17th centuries; capital of Nationalist China (1928--37); site of a massacre of about 300 000 civilians by the invading Japanese army in 1937; university (1928). Pop.: 2 806 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Elliott and Nankin (5) reported an ABP correction rate of 88% after IO anterotransposition surgery.
Beside their being porcelain, this kinship is validated not only by the formal and literal references to generic archetypes, plates, cups and surfaces, but also to correct stylistic denominations such as Nankin and Niderviller porcelain or Shigaraki which he cites among other sources (6).
Also contributing to this report were Jesse Nankin and Melissa Tabeek.
Here you will find the proud Nankin cock bantam, with its "rich orange with chestnut, copper and ginger-buff" plumage, the Poland hen, its crest of feathers, the author suggests, making it look like "a Las Vegas showgirl", and the Appenzeller Spitzhauden hen which "comes in silver spangled, gold spangled, chamois spangled, black and blue".
Todos sabemos lo que sucedio con este razonamiento a lo largo del siglo XX, el siglo de los genocidios, de los campos de exterminio nazi, de las masacres de Nankin, del terror totalitario, de los desaparecidos en America Latina, de la purificacion etnica en la ex-Yugoslavia, de Rwanda.
El caso mas complicado es el incidente o la masacre de Nankin de 1937.
The Nankin is one of the oldest known true bantams, meaning it's a naturally small fowl that has not been miniaturized from a larger breed.
According to Mike Bartholomew, skipper of RSA the team's King 40 Tokoloshe, "It was Eddie Warden Owen from the RORC who actually suggested to Rick Nankin and myself that we should consider putting a South African team together.
Despues de varios intentos, Ricci logro desembarcar en China continental el 10 de septiembre de 1583, fundando la primera residencia en Zhaoqing, a la clue siguieron pronto las casas en Shaozhou, Nanchang, Nankin y, finalmente, Beijing, ciudad a la que llego el 24 de enero de 1601.
En la region de Nankin estalla una rebelion liderada por campesinos chinos que pone fin al dominio extranjero.
Oka's Nankin mirror, pounds 345, is from its hand painted Chinoiserie collection, a key art form where furniture is embellished with Chinese designs.