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Related to nanotechnological: nanotechnology, Nanoscience


see micromechanicsmicromechanics,
the combination of minuscule electrical and mechanical components in a single device less than 1 mm across, such as a valve or a motor. Although micromechanical production processes and applications are still in the developmental stage, efforts have begun to
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Systems for transforming matter, energy, and information that are based on nanometer-scale components with precisely defined molecular features.
Techniques that produce or measure features less than 100 nanometers in size.


Systems for transforming matter, energy, and information, based on nanometer-scale components with precisely defined molecular features. The term nan-otechnology has also been used more broadly to refer to techniques that produce or measure features less than 100 nanometers in size; this meaning embraces advanced microfabrication and metrology. Although complex systems with precise molecular features cannot be made with existing techniques, they can be designed and analyzed. Studies of nanotechnology in this sense remain theoretical, but are intended to guide the development of practical technological systems.

Nanotechnology based on molecular manufacturing requires a combination of familiar chemical and mechanical principles in unfamiliar applications. Molecular manufacturing can exploit mechanosynthesis, that is, using mechanical devices to guide the motions of reactive molecules. By applying the conventional mechanical principle of grasping and positioning to conventional chemical reactions, mechanosynthesis can provide an unconventional ability to cause molecular changes to occur at precise locations in a precise sequence. Reliable positioning is required in order for mechanosynthetic processes to construct objects with millions to billions of precisely arranged atoms.

Mechanosynthetic systems are intended to perform several basic functions. Their first task is to acquire raw materials from an externally provided source, typically a liquid solution containing a variety of useful molecular species. The second task is to process these raw materials through steps that separate molecules of different kinds, bind them reliably to specific sites, and then (often) transform them into highly active chemical species, such as radicals, carbenes, and strained alkenes and alkynes. Finally, mechanical devices can apply these bound, active species to a workpiece in a controlled position and orientation and can deposite or remove a precise number of atoms of specific kinds at specific locations.

Several technologies converge with nanotechnologies, the most important being miniaturization of semiconductor structures, driven by progress in microelectronics. More directly relevant are efforts to extend chemical synthesis to the construction of larger and more complex molecular objects. Protein engineering and supramolecular chemistry are active fields that exploit weak intermolecular forces to organize small parts into larger structures. Scanning probe microscopes are used to move individual atoms and molecules.


/nan'-oh-tek-no"l*-jee/ Any fabrication technology in which objects are designed and built by the specification and placement of individual atoms or molecules or where at least one dimension is on a scale of nanometers.

The first unequivocal nanofabrication experiments took place in 1990, for example with the deposition of individual xenon atoms on a nickel substrate to spell the logo of a certain very large computer company.

Nanotechnology has been a hot topic in the hacker subculture ever since the term was coined by K. Eric Drexler in his book "Engines of Creation", where he predicted that nanotechnology could give rise to replicating assemblers, permitting an exponential growth of productivity and personal wealth.

See also nanobot.


The science of developing materials at the atomic and molecular level in order to imbue them with special electrical and chemical properties. Nanotechnology, which deals with devices typically less than 100 nanometers in size, is making a significant contribution to the fields of computer storage, semiconductors, biotechnology, manufacturing and energy.

In the future, amazing nanotech-based products are expected, including extraordinarily tiny computers that are very powerful, building materials that withstand earthquakes, advanced systems for drug delivery and custom-tailored pharmaceuticals as well as the elimination of invasive surgery, because repairs can be made from within the body.

One Person Can Make a Breakthrough
Larry Bock, CEO of Nanosys, who helped launch more than a dozen successful biotech companies in his career, said that nanotech will impact even more industries than biotech. In an excerpted article from the March 2003 Nanotech Report, he compared nanotechnology with microelectronics. Bock said that "a single chemistry graduate student can create novel devices and device architectures not even imaginable or manufacturable by today's biggest microprocessor companies. That is because these devices are fabricated chemically, or from the bottom up. Existing microelectronics technology is fabricated by etching wafers, or from the top down." See AFM, STM, Buckyball, nanotube and MEMS.

Fixing One Cell at a Time
By 2020, scientists at Rutgers University believe that nano-sized robots will be injected into the bloodstream and administer a drug directly to an infected cell. This robot has a carbon nanotube body, a biomolecular motor that propels it and peptide limbs to orient itself. Because it is composed of biological elements such as DNA and proteins, it will be easily removed from the body. (Image courtesy of the Bio-Nano Robotics team at Rutgers University: Constantinos Mavroidis, Martin L. Yarmush, Atul Dubey, Angela Thornton, Kevin Nikitczuk, Silvina Tomassone, Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos and Bernie Yurke.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The Interrupted Journey, however, is far more ambivalent about living in a nanotechnological future than Life or Reader's Digest.
When even an anti-technology activist like Pat Mooney acknowledges the stupendous benefits offered by nanotechnological development, there is no choice but to forge ahead with due caution.
Nanotechnological techniques, instruments, materials and products are currently being furiously patented by corporations and research institutes.
However, what is even more important is to establish an ongoing dialogue between insurers and the manufacturers and consumers of nanotechnological products and procedures, so as to reduce the risk for all concerned.
Reading "Nano Update," a Web-based publication from Drexler's Foresight Institute, one is struck by the feeling that a nanotechnological future is almost here.
This suggests including ten percent of innovative products, including nanotechnological ones, in the system of municipal and state procurements.
The project involves six research groups (4 EU and 2 from Other Third Countries) with complementary expertise and the common aim to develop new metallacrown complexes with novel magnetic, photophysical and structural properties be used as tools in bio- or nanotechnological devices.
The Islamic Republic of Iran has taken great steps in different scientific, industrial, nuclear, military, technological and nanotechnological fields in the last 34 years after its establishment based on people's votes and will, and it has achieved unique successes," Iranian Ambassador to Beirut Qazanfar Roknabadi said in a meeting with a number of Lebanese teachers on Friday to mark the 34th anniversary of the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran.
Among the areas studied are topological effects, advanced spectroscopy and scattering, phase change materials, scanning probe microscopy on oxides, logic devices and circuit design, neuromorphic concepts, valence change memories, magnetic interfaces and surfaces, spin dynamics, multiferroic thin films and heterostructures, interplay between strain and electronic structure in metal oxides, nanotechnological fabrication strategies, and carbon-based molecular systems.
He also has survived a catastrophy and is ready to profit from it, but unaware that he is already infected with the nanotechnological disease.
It wasn't until 2004 that stand-alone sheets of graphene were first characterized with modern nanotechnological instruments.
The products incorporate a nanotechnological constituent that both penetrates the surface and builds a durable non-stick and chemically resistant film.