narcolepsy


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Related to narcolepsy: sleep apnea, Sleep disorders

narcolepsy,

a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and recurring unwanted episodes of sleep ("sleep attacks"). People with narcolepsy may abruptly fall asleep at almost any time, including while talking, eating, or even walking. The attacks may range from embarrassing or inconvenient to severely disabling, interfering with a person's daily life. An estimated 125,000–250,000 people in the United States have narcolepsy; it occurs about equally in males and females.

Most people with narcolepsy also experience cataplexy, sudden muscular weakness without loss of consciousness, which usually accompanies laughter or anger. Other symptoms, occurring just after falling asleep or upon awakening, include sleep paralysis (a feeling that one cannot move) and vivid hallucinations.

The cause of narcolepsy is not known with certainty, but most people with narcolepsy have low levels of orexin (or hypocretin), a neurotransmitter that promotes wakefulness. In the case of people with narcolepsy and cataplexy, the cause appears to be an autoimmune response that attacks the brain's orexin-producing neurons. There is no cure. Treatment, including regular planned naps and the use of stimulant drugs (e.g., amphetaminesamphetamine
, any one of a group of drugs that are powerful central nervous system stimulants. Amphetamines have stimulating effects opposite to the effects of depressants such as alcohol, narcotics, and barbiturates.
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) plus antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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 for cataplexy, can help to control its symptoms.

Narcolepsy

 

a disease the main symptom of which is an uncontrollable desire for sleep. Narcolepsy can develop after infections (epidemic encephalitis and malaria, for example) or head injuries; it may also be caused by certain brain tumors. Sometimes no apparent cause can be discovered, as in congenital, or genuine, narcolepsy. In addition to being characterized by an uncontrollable desire for sleep, narcolepsy is characterized by cataplectic attacks (loss of muscle tone brought about by exaggerated emotion) and by sudden arousals from nocturnal sleep with a loss of muscle tone. The duration of narcoleptic attacks is brief—from one to 30 minutes. The course of narcolepsy is chronic, but the intensity diminishes with age. Treatment involves both the elimination of the underlying cause and the use of pharmacotherapeutic techniques.

narcolepsy

[′när·kə‚lep·sē]
(medicine)
A disorder of sleep mechanism characterized by two or more of four distinct symptoms: uncontrollable periods of daytime drowsiness, cataleptic attacks of muscular weakness, sleep paralysis, and vivid nocturnal or hypnogogic hallucinations.
References in periodicals archive ?
The company added that solriamfetol Phase 3 clinical programme includes one study evaluating excessive sleepiness in adult patients with narcolepsy (TONES 2), two studies evaluating excessive sleepiness in adult patients with OSA (TONES 3 and TONES 4), and an open-label, long-term safety and maintenance of efficacy study (TONES 5) in the treatment of excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy or OSA.
Narcolepsy - Therapeutics under Development by Companies 10
HLA DQB1*0602 allele, which was studied to support the diagnosis of narcolepsy was found positive.
Recording a narrative conclusion, Paul Cooper, acting senior coroner for South Lincolnshire, said studies showed there were "significantly raised odds of narcolepsy after (being given the) Pandemrix" vaccine in those aged 18 and above.
But recent trials have shown that it's effective in treating narcolepsy.
The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Narcolepsy
2: For most people, the onset of narcolepsy is between ages 10 and 17.
Narcolepsy is an obstinate neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns.
Children with narcolepsy usually show shortened average sleep latency on their EEG and sleep onset REM periods.
JZP-110 (formerly ADX-N05), a wake-promoting agent with dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity, reduced symptoms in a phase lib randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 93 patients with narcolepsy, according to Dr.
While the team did not identify any link to a large number of immune-related or neurological diseases, they did confirm an increased risk in diagnosis of narcolepsy in individuals younger than 20 years of age, and observed a trend towards an increased risk amongst young adults between 21 and 30.
2 years) with narcolepsy were randomly assigned to receive, in double-blind fashion, 510 mg per day of L-carnitine (340 mg in the morning and 170 mg in the evening) or placebo for 8 weeks and then the alternate treatment for an additional 8 weeks.